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მნიშვნელოვანი ნაშრომი გრიგოლ გურიელის ეროვნული ღვაწლის შესახებ


uCa oqropiriZe 

mniSvnelovani naSromi grigol gurielis erovnuli Rvawlis Sesaxeb

 

2016 wlis 28 ivniss viyavi oficialuri oponenti baton avTandil diasamiZis istoriis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad wardgenili sakvalifikacio naSromisa _ “grigol gurieli _ saqarTvelos teritoriuli da erovnuli mTlianobisaTvis mebrZoli” _ romlis aqtualoba Tanamedrove qarTul istoriografiaSi araviTar eWvs ar iwvevs, radgan karga xania dadga dro, Rirseulad dafasdes yvela is qarTveli mamuliSvili, romlebic sakuTari Rirsebis SegrZnebiT, maRali zneobrivi da sulieri SegnebiT, muxlCauxrelad, Cumad emsaxurebodnen TavianT samSoblos.

pativcemul disertants unda daveTanxmoT, rom am mxvriv guriis mTavarTa bolo Taobis erT-erT RirsSesaniSnav STamomavals, swored grigol daviTis Ze gurieli warmoadgenda, romelic disertaciaSi motanili da gaanalizebuli masalebis safuZvelze samarTlianadaa warmoCenili, rogorc erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis erT-erTi lideri samxreT-dasvleT saqarTveloSi (da ara marto am regionSi).

sadisertacio naSromi Sedgeba Sesavlis, 10 Tavis, daskvnisa da gamoyenebuli literaturisa da wyaroebis CamonaTvalisagan, romelTagan mxolod es ukanaskneli Tabaxis 10 gverds (sul 300 erTeuls)  moicavs. amasTan, metad STambeWdavia sxvadasxva kvalificiur gamocemebSi disertantis mier sakvlevi Temis irgvliv gamoqveynebuli naSromebisa da saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciebze gakeTebul moxsenebaTa siac, romelTagan umravlesoba disertaciaSi aris gamoyenebuli. am mimarTulebiT diserantis mier gaweuli didi da Sromatevadi samuSaoebis Sesruleba ueWveli da marTlac dasafasebulia. igi moicavs pativcemuli maZieblis mier sadisertacio Temis problemaTa garSemo gamarTul 2 seminars, 3 koloqviums (1. Grigol gurielis eqspedicia samxreT-dasvleT saqarTveloSi 1974 wels, 2. grigol gurielis erovnuli moRvaweoba aWaraSi, 3. grigol gurieli da qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba), 27 erTeul samecniero statiasa da sxvadasxva donis samecniero konferenciebze wakiTxul 10 moxsenebas, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia misi moxsenebebi saerTaSoriso konferenciaze “msoflio da kavkasia” (Tbilisi, 2013 weli, 17-19 maisi).

Mmis mier gaweuli am didi samuSaosa da statia-moxsenebaTa saTaurebis ubralo CamonaTvalze Tvalis gadavlebac sakmarisia, rom davrwmundeT, Tu ramdenad Rrma da yovlis momcvelia grigol gurielis cxovrebiTa da moRvaweobiT disertantis dainteresebis sfero; igi, SeiZleba iTqvas, zogierT SemTxvevaSi “wvrilmanebiTac” interesdeba da gvawvdis sakmaod bevr ucnob detals grigol gurielis cxovrebidan da saqmianobidan; magaliTad, rogoricaa misi kavSiri qobuleT-aWaris XIX saukunis 70-iani wlebis gamosvlebTan da amasTan, masSi Sesrulebuli rolis Sesaxeb (referati, gv. 9). Mmisi moRvaweoba ruseT-TurqeTis sazRvris guria-qobuleTis nawilis sakordono xazze, werili aWara-qobuleTSi qristianobis gavrcelebis RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb, grigol gurielisa da misi Zmis, general-leitenant levan gurielis monawileoba yirimis omSi (iqve) da sxva.

sadisertacio naSromSi srulyofiladaa agreTve warmodgenili grigol gurielis monawileoba 1877-1878 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omSi da misi roli ruseTis jaris  nawilebis qarTvel mxedrobasTan erTad qalaq baTumSi mSvidobianad Sesvlis, aWara-qobuleTis, SavSeTis, klarjeTis, kola-artaanis, da taos Crdilo nawilis – olTisis usisxlod dakavebis saqmeSi.

aqve saTanado wyaroebis moxmobiTa da maTi gonivruli analiziT damtkicebulia, rom grigol gurieli iyo originaluri qarTuli naSromebis, Tu ucxo enidan naTargmni wignebisa da nawarmoebebis gamomcemeli, amasTanave qarTuli numizmatikis erT-erTi fuZemdebelTagani da qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebasTan Seqmnili numizmatikuri ganyofilebis damaarsebeli. igi iyo agreTve saqarTveloSi sasuliero da saero saswavlebelTa mzrunveli da moamage (grigol gurielma ozurgeTis saswavlebels 13 aTas manaeTad dauTmo 28 aTas  maneTad Rirebuli  sakuTari sasaxle da ezo-midamo). gansakuTrebiT ki xazgasmulia, rom grigol gurielma mTeli Tavisi sicocxle moaxmara osmalTa batonobisagan qarTuli istoriuli teritoriebis saqarTvelosTan dabrunebis saqmes, mis winsvlas, qristian da mahmadian qarTvelTa Soris ndobisa da erTobis aRdgenas.

Ddisertanti Tavisi sakvalifikacio naSromis pirveli Tavis me-2 paragrafSi warmogvidgens grigol gurielisa da misi winaprebis sakmaod  vrcelsa da saintereso biografias, maTi cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis RirsSesaniSnav momentebs, (disert. gv. 37-44) rac pirvelad keTdeba da disertaciisaTvis damaxasiaTebel siaxles Seadgens. siaxlea agreTve naSromSi samxreT-dasavleT  saqarTveloSi (zemo aWara, SavSeTi, artanuji, livana, lazeTi) 1874 wels mowyobili eqspediciis xemZRvanelad grigol gurielis warmoCena da amis gamomwvevi mizezebisa da garemoebebis saTanado dasabuTeba-axsna D(disert. Tavi III, gv. 49-58).

Zalze sainteresod aqvs disertants moTxrobili amave regionSi qarTvel mahmadianTa antiosmaluri gamosvlebisa da maTSi grigol gurielis aqtiurobis Sesaxeb, romelTa drosac igi warmoCnda, rogorc samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli erovnuli ideis didi mxardamWeri da erT-erT lideri (disert. Tavi IV,  gv. 69-83).B

aqve, V TavSi gadmocemulia 1877-1878 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omSi grigol gurielis monawileobis, qarTuli ZirZveli istoriuli mxareebis saqarTvelosTan dabrunebasa da BbaTumsa Tu sxva regionebSi ruseTis jarebis mSvidobiani Sesvlis saqmeSi mis mier Sesrulebuli mniSvnelovani rolis Sesaxeb (disert. gv. 87-95), rac aseve sakiTxis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT siaxles warmoadgens.

amasTanave, disertaciaSi kargad aris warmoCenili grigol gurielis mier aWaraSi moRvaweobisas gaweuli is didi samuSao, rac miznad isaxavda qarTvel mahmadianTa sxvadasxva problemebis mogvarebas da mimarTuli iyo ruseT-osmaleTis antiqarTuli politikis Sedegad maTi muhajirebad qcevis winaaRmdeg (disert. TaviVI, gv. 98-107).

naSromSi saTanado masalis moyvanisa da analizis safuZvelze grigol gurieli warmoCenilia, rogorc ruseTis koloniuri reJimis winaaRmdeg aqtiuri mebrZoli, qristian da mahmadian qarTvelTa erTianobisa da aWaraSi qristianobis aRdgenis cdis saTaveebTan mdgari pirovneba. Aam mxvriv gansakuTrebiT  metyvelia misi mimarTva  qarTveli mahmadianebisadmi  da werilebi rafiel erisTavisadmi (disert. Tavi VII, gv. 110-126).

disertaciis VIII TavSi gadmocemulia, Tu ra urTierToba Hhqonda grigol guriels qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebasTan; rom is iyo, qarTuli erovnuli saqmeebis SemoqmedTa am sakrebulos, Rirseuli  da sapatio wevri, misi Tavdauzogavi Semwirveli da didi qomagi, qarTuli wignebisa Tu ucxo enidan  naTargmni saintereso gamocemaTa gulSematkivari da maTi damfinansebeli (qilila  da damana sparsulidan qarTulad naTargmanebi mefisa vaxtangisagan Tavad grigol gurielis gamocema, ilia Wyonias redaqciiT, tfilisi, 1886; sibrZne solomon mefisa, gamocemuli Tavadis grigol gurielis mier, ozurgeTi, 1890; wigni eklesiaste mefe solomon brZenisa, gamocemuli grigol gurielis mier, ozurgeTi, 1890; wigni qarTvel mahmadianTa locvebi, gamocemuli Tavadis grigol gurielis mier, Tb., 1891). Aaqve laparakia mis mier qSwkg sazogadoebis biblioTekisaTvis sakuTari mdidari biblioTekis didi nawilis, agreTve arqeologiuri da numizmatikuri masalis gadacemasa da am ukanasknelis bazaze amave sazogadoebasTan numizmatikuri ganyofilebis Seqmnis Taobaze (disert. Tavi VIII, gv. 127-137).

disertaciis IX TavSi grigol gurielis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianobazea yuradReba gamaxvilebuli, romlis drosac igi ar iSurebda fulad Tu sxva materialur saxsrebs, arc sasuliero da saero saswavlebelTa da arc kerZo pirTaTvis – niko mari, mamalaZe da sxva. (disert. gv. 138-146); xolo X TavSi saubaria mis gardacvalebasa da maSindel qarTul sazogadoebaSi amis Sedegad gamowveul im did mwuxarebaze, rac aRniSnulma Ffaqtma sruliad saqarTveloSi gamoiwvia. A

am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT STambeWdavia gazeTSi “iveria” ramdenime nomerSi gamoqveynebuli gamosaTxovari werilebi, romelTagan erT-erTSi laparakia moswavleobis ymawvilur asakSi grigol gurielisa da nikoloz baraTaSvilis axlo urTierTobebze; iqve aRniSnulia, rom oblad darCenili patara grigol gurieli izrdeboda qobuleTSi, kerZod kintriSis xeobaSi, jaSebis ojaxSi, ris gamoc gamohyva mas “am mxarisa da eris ganusazRvreli siyvaruli”. xolo 1891 wlis 10 dekembris gazeT ”iveriis N 262 nomerSi lavrenti wulaZ|e grigol guriels uZRvnis striqonebs, romlebic yvelaze metyveli sabuTia am didi mamuliSvilis dasaxasiaTeblad:

“ iyo viT mtredi umanko,

xundebsa ufrTxildeboda,-

“arwivTa klanWi ar hkrano”-

Aama azrisTvis kvdeboda.” 

Uunda aRvniSnoT, rom disertanti grigol gurielis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis aRwerisas aRwevs sakmaod maRal damajereblobas da misi naSromi didi interesiT ikiTxeba.

Aaseve, unda aRiniSnos disertantis mier sakvalifikacio naSromze muSaobisas gamoyenebuli wyaroTmcodneobiTi bazis gansakuTrebuli simdidre da mravalferovneba, romelze muSaobisas baton avTandils mxedvelobis gareT ar darCenia grigol gurielis  cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis amsaxveli TiTqmis arcerTi saistorio wyaro Tu saarqivo masala. Mmas disertaciaSi gamoyenebuli aqvs dokumenturi masalebi saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqividan, aWaris centraluri saxelmwifo arqividan, ruseTis saxelmwifo  saistorio, Tu ruseTis saxelmwifo samxedro saistorio arqivebidan,; amasTan, saTanado masalebi moupovebia korneli kekeliZis saxelobis xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi, saqarTvelos erovnuli istoriis muzeumSi Tu bevr sxva msgavsi profilis dawesebulebebSi, _ risTvisac disertantis mimarT madlobis meti araferi gveTqmis.

Mmagram, miuxedavad sadisertacio naSromis amgvari maRali xarisxis maxasiaTeblebisa, sakvalifikacio naSromis mimarT gvaqvs ramdenime mokrZalebuli SeniSvna da keTilganwyobiT nakarnaxevi survili, rac aRniSnuli problemis Semdgomi kvlevis gagrZelebis dros, Cveni azriT, disertants karg samsaxurs gauwevs:

1.        naSromis SesavalSi disertanti wers, rom “saqrTvelos saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi awuxebda da awuxebs, rogorc teritoriuli, ise erovnuli mTlianobis problema” (disert. Ggv. 14). Aazris dazustebis mizniT, Cveni SexedulebiT, misi Camoyalibeba ase ajobebda: “saqarTvelos saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi awuxebda da awuxebs rogorc saxelmwifoebriv-teritoriuli, ise erovnuli mTlianobis aRdgenis problema...”

2.        iqve naTqvamia,  rom “afxazeTisa da samaCablos (samxreT oseTis) saqarTvelodan 2008 wels Camocilebam...” da a. S. (disert. iqve) aq pirvel rigSi unda iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifos iurisdiqcia am teritoriebze aRar vrceldeboda 1992 wlidan da amave periodidan iyvnen isini saqarTvelosagan faqtobrivad Camocilebuli da ruseTis mier okupirebuli, xolo 2008 wlidan ruseTis saokupacio reJimi cdilobs yovelive amis iuridiul gaformebas.

3.        vfiqrobT, ramdenadme dasazustebelia disertaciis me-15 gverdze mocemuli Semdegi Teza “...istoriuli qarTuli mxarebis deda-samSobloSi dasabruneblad XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi arcerT qarTvel moRvawes ar Seutania iseTi gansakuTrebuli wvlili, rogoric grigol gurielma dasdo Tavis samSoblos...”(disert. Gv. 15) aq,  Cveni azriT, sakmarisi iqneboda, am saqmeSi grigol gurielis gansakuTrebuli wvlilis aRniSvna Sedarebebis gareSe.

4.        literaturis mimoxilvis nawilSi, bolos, roca disertanti moixseniebs XIX saukunis II naxevarSi gamosul Jurnal-gazeTebs, kargi iqneboda Tu ramdenime maTgans aqve, saxeldebiT miuTiTebda (disert. Ggv. 22).

5.        Ddisertanti sakvalifikacio naSromSi gr.Ggurielis mimarT xSirad iyenebs gamonaTqvams “...XIX saukunis II naxevris samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis lideri” (disert, gv. 25, 36, 51...). Cveni azriT, ufro marTebuli iqneboda, am SemTxvevaSi, termin “erT-erTi lideris” gamoyeneba, radganac cnobilia, rom aRniSnul periodSi am regionSi moRvaweobdnen sxva, aseve erovnuli niSniT aRbeWdili pirovnebebic _ Serif-beg da nuri-beg ximSiaSvilebi, xusein-beg beJaniZe, gulo-aRa kaikaciSvili, loman-efendi qarcivaZe da sxvebi.

6.        Aaseve gamarTlebulad ar migvaCnia zogierT SemTxvevaSi disertaciaSi grigol gurielis Ffamilarulad, mxolod saxeliT moxsenieba (disert. Ggv. 25, 28, 38 da a. S.) ???   

7.        naSromis 32-e gverdze disertanti wers, rom “ruseTis imperiulma mmarTvelobam qarTul eklesiasac Seuqmna safrTxe”, magram, mgonia araferi daSavdeboda, disertants iqve daematebina _ “...da 1811 wels misi avtokefalia gaauqma”, rac momxdari istoriuli faqtis namdvil Sinaarss ufro Seesabameba.

8.        35-e gverdze disertanti aRniSnavs, rom “mxolod saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdeg ruseTis daxmarebiT  iwyeba osmaleTis mier  saqarTvelosagan mitacebuli teritoriebis dabrunebis procesi”, (disert. Ggv. 35) rac qmnis iseT STabeWdilebas, TiTqos aRniSnul procesSi ruseTis imperias raRac keTili ganzraxva amoZravebda, rac sinamdviles ar Seesabameba. amitomac zemoT moyvanili azris dazustebis mizniT, xom ar ajobebda igi ase Camogveyalibebina _ “mxolod saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdeg, amierkavkasiaSi ruseTis imperiis teritoriuli ganvrcobis kvalobaze, iwyeba osmaleTisagan saqarTvelos mitacebuli (da ara marto saqarTvelos) teritoriebis dabrunebis procesi”. aseve kargi iqneboda Tu iqve mocemul mosazrebas, rom “XIX saukune mniSvnelovanwilad “gamoxsnisa” da “aRdgomis” xanac iyo”, ase davazustebdiT _ “XIX saukune mniSvnelovanwilad Cveni istoriuli miwebis “gamoxsnisa“ da saqarTvelos “aRdgomis” xanac iyo”, _ sityvebis “gamoxsnisa” da “aRdgomis” brWyalebSi datovebiT.

9.        aseve dazustebas moiTxovs Teza, rom TiTqos “saqarTvelos daubrunda TurqeTis mier adre mitacebuli samflobeloebi” ( disert. gv. 36). unda avRniSnoT, rom es iyo kavkasiaSi ruseTis imperiis teritoriuli ganvrcobisa da eqspansiis Cveulebrivi procesi da mas, am SemTxvevaSi,  ar amoZravebda raime keTilSobiluri miznebi. ruseTis imperiis kavkasiaSi ganvrcobis procesi mxolod iribad daemTxva qarTveli xalxis interesebs da aq imis Tqma, rom TiTqos-da saqarTvelos raime daubrunda, arasworia. piriqiT, saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela am nawilSi moxda ucxotomelTa Camosaxleba da am regionebSi adre arsebuli demografiuli suraTis qarTvelTa da saqarTvelos sazianod mkveTri Secvla. amasTan swrafi tempiT daiwyo maTi koloniuri eqspansia, romelTa Sedegebi dRemde problemebs uqmnis qarTul saxelmwifos.

      _ disertants aseve keTilmosurned vurCevdiT, rom rodesac XIX saukunis did erovnul moRvaweebs CamoTvlis, maT aucileblad saTaveSi Cauyenos ilia WavWavaZe, radgan amis mravali mizezi arsebobs (disert. gv. 36)

_ Cveni azriT, kargi iqneboda Tu pativcemuli disertanti sakvalifikacio naSromSi rusulad motanil zogierT citatasa da masalas maTi qarTuli TargmanebiT Caanacvlebda (disert. gv. 46, 47, 58, 100-101, 103), rac did sirTules ar warmoadgens. amasTan, rodesac sadisertacio naSromSi saubaria qobuleTis garSemo mimdinare movlenebze, ukeTesi iqneboda  moqmed aqtiorTa qobuleTlebad moxsenieba (disert. gv 82).

 _ disertanti rodesac Tavis naSromSi saubrobs qarTveli muslimanebis mier 1877-1878 wlebis ruseT-osmaleTis omis dros gamovlinebuil poziciaze, aRniSnavs: “grigolis rCeva-darigebiT isini am omSi myarad dadgnen rus-qarTvelTa poziciaze”...(disert. gv. 89), rac Cveni azriT, arasworia da dazustebas moiTxovs.

Cven vfiqrobT, rom aq ufro marTebuli da saqmis SinaarsTan ufro axlo iqneboda msjeloba, rom “grigolis rCeva-darigebiT, isini am omSi myarad dadgnen ruseTis mxares, saqarTvelosTan gaerTianebis perspeqtivis interesebidan gamomdinare”. amasTan, termini “rus-qarTvelTa”, aRniSnul konteqstSi da disertaciis sxva adgilebSi gamoyenebis drosac, metad xelovnurad Seqmnilad gamoiyureba da ar pasuxobs istoriuli sinamdvilis realur Sinaarss, radgan TviT rusebi sakuTar imperiaSi Semaval pyrobil sxva xalxebs erovnebebad saerTod ar aRiqvamdnen da kerZod, saqarTvelos xsenebac ki akrZaluli hqondaT. aqedan gamomdinare, “rus-qarTvelTa poziciaze”, “rus-qarTvelTa mxedrobaze” (disert. gv. 95, 100) Tu sxva, laparaki sruliad unda gamovricxoT, radgan relurad arsebobda mxolod ruseTis pozicia da ruseTis samxedro Tu sxva struqturebi.

       _ da bolos, gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvalis me-13 da 44-e nomrebze miTiTebuli avtoris dasaxelebisas gaparulia uzustoba da CxataraiSvilis nacvlad CxartaiSvili weria (disert. gv. 165-166).

 _ ramodenime keTilmosurne survili gvaqvs sadisertacio naSromis Semadgeneli Tavebisa da Sesabamisi paragrafebis saTaurebis mimarTac, magram maT Sesaxeb saubrisagan aq Tavs SevikavebT da maTze Cven mosazrebebs, pativcemul disertants, naSromis wignad gamosacemad momzadebis dros gavuziarebT.

miuxedavad Cvens mier zemoT gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebisa da survilebisa, disertant avTandil diasamiZis mier istoriis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad warmodgenili naSromi _ “grigol gurieli _ saqarTvelos teritoriuli da erovnuli mTlianobisaTvis mebrZoli” migvaCnia, rom Sesrulebulia maRalkvalificiur doneze, sadisertacio naSromisaTvis wayenebuli yvela moTxovnilebis dacviT; istoriuli literaturis Dda wyaroebis gamoyenebisa da analizis safuZvelze masSi gamoTqmulia metad saintereso mosazrebani da gakeTebulia saTanado daskvnebi.

Aamitomac vfiqrobT, rom avTandil diasamiZis aRniSnuli sadisertacio naSromi “grigol gurieli – saqarTvelos tetritoriuli da erovnuli mTlianobidsTvis mebrZoli”, Cvens mier gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebisa da keTili survilebis gaTvaliswinebis Semdeg sasurvelia gamoices monografiis saxiT.

   

 

uCa oqropiriZis _ istoriis doqtori, profesori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis niko berZeniSvilis institutis istoriisa da arqeologiis ganyofilebis mTavri mecnieri TanamSromeli