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"...კეთილგვაროვანი ოქროპირიძენი"



  1. avtor-Semdgeneli

     

    uCa oqropiriZe 

     

     

     

     

    „...keTilgvarovani  oqropiriZeni“

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Tbilisi

    2017

     

     

     

     

     

     


     

    redaqtorebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,

    profesori avTandil sonRulaSvili

    istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,

                                     emeritusi profesori biWiko diasamiZe 

     

                      recenzentebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,

    profesori dodo WumburiZe

    istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori

                                             profesori gela saiTiZe

     

     

                                   veb-developeri: Savleg rTveliaSvili           

                         

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Sesavali

     

           sagvareulo istoriis kvleva didi da sapasuxismgeblo saqmea, radgan maszea damo­ki­de­­bu­li, Tu rogor warmovaCenT gvaris mier xangrZliv periodSi  istoriulad ganvlil gzas; Se­v­Z­lebT Tu ara winaparTa mier RirsebiT ganvlili cxovrebis magaliTebis warmo­Ce­nis kvalo­baze, awmyosa da momavlis sasikeTo perspeqtivis gaTvlazec movaxdinoT gavlena da gavxdeT uke­Tesebi. xolo axalTaobaSi aRvzardoT ara marto warsulis pativiscema, ara­med momav­li­sa­d­mi udidesi rwmena da imedi, amasTan imis siRrmiseuli Segneba, rom swored maTzea damoki­debuli Cveni samSoblos bedi, am saqmeSi maTi pasuxismgeblobaa ganmsazRvreli iseve, rogorc es maTi didi winaprebis მოღვაწეobaSia dafiqsirebuli. 

    rodesac pasuxismgeblobaze vlaparakobT, Tvalwin warmogvidgeba Cveni დიდი winap­re­bi, romelTac TiTqmis arafrisagan, saqmed aqcies qarTvelTa ocneba. Tundac, rodesac gri­gol xanZTeli carieli xel-joxis amara tao-klarjeTisaken gzas gaudga, Cvenis azriT, mas kargad hqonda gaazrebuli aTaswlelebze gaTvlili sakuTari misia, romelsac sakuTari ji­Sisa da genisadmi udidesi rwmena kvebavda; da rodesac “aRTqmul qveyanaSi” Cavida, TiTqos-da Tavisi saswaulmoqmedi joxis aqneviT, marTlac saswaulebi moaxdina da swored iqedan da­iwyo Cveni eris xelaxali aRorZineba. ღრმად გვწამდეს, რომ  თითოეულ ქართველში დევს გრი­გოლ ხანძთელის მისია; ამიტომ საგვარეულოს  საუკეთესო წარმომადგენელთა ცხოვრებასა და საქ­მი­ანობაზე მითითებით unda მოვახდინოთ ყოველ ჩვენგანში miZinebuli m მისიის გამოღვიძება da გა­აზრება. მი­თუ­მე­ტეს ეს აუცილებელი და საჭიროა დღეს, როდესაც პრინციპულად დგას საკითხი, როგორ გადავარჩინოთ ჩვენი ერის kulturuli da სულიერი ფასეულობანი.

          RvTis madliTa da uwmindesis da unetaresis kurTxeviT, sagvareulo kavSiris wes­de­bis mixedviT oqropiriZeTa gvaris warmomadgenlebmac CamovayalibeT gvaris 5 wevrisgan Sem­d­gari sainiciativo jgu­fi. gvarSi gamoCndnen ada­mi­anebi, romelTac iTaves gvaris daloc­vi­sa­Tvis Semzadeba. oqropiriZeebis sagvareulo kavSiris damfuZnebel krebaze gvaris war­mo­ma­d­genlebma, moZRvrebma da Sekrebis iniciatorebma avirCieT gvaris gamgeoba [uCa, zurab, ma­l­xaz, zurab (qobuleTi) da spartak oqropi­ri­Ze­e­bi] da winamZRoli (TanaTavmjdomareebi – ba­to­nebi uCa da zurab oqropiriZeebi); Sevi­muSaveT wesdeba. imisaTvis, rom gvari Rirseulad warmdgariyo saq­a­r­Tvelos eklesiis saWeTmpyroblis winaSe, yoveli Tvis pirvel kviras vik­ri­bebodiT samebis sa­kaTedro taZarSi da vmsjelobdiT am sapasuxismgeblo wamowyebis prob­lemebze. Segrovda ga­r­kveuli Tanxa, daiwera oqropiriZeTa bude-sofel disevisa da mTli­anad oqropiriZeebis mfarveli xati, Seiqmna naSromi sofel disevis Sesaxeb, mimdinareobs mu­Saoba sagvareulo gerbis, droSisa da himnis Sesaqmnelad. gvari oficialurad daregis­tri­r­da arasamewarmeo iuridiul pirad, bankSi gaisna angariSi, raTa momavalSi mas hqondes sakuTa­ri finansebi. 2012 wlis 22 ivliss TbilisSi, samebis sakaTedro taZarSi moxda oqro­pi­riZeTa sagvareulos dalocva. magram gvaris dalocvas ar unda hqondes mxolod simbo­lu­ri xasiaTi. oqropiriZeTa yvela ojaxSi unda moxdes su­li­e­ri feriscvaleba da gvax­sovdes, rom oqropiriZeTa gvars saqarTvelos eklesiisa da eris winaSe sapasuxismgeblo mi­sia hqonda, aqvs da eqneba.

    oqropiriZeTa sagvareulos sulieri erTianobis gansamtkiceblad saWirod migvaCnia wm. mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres xsenebis dRes, 8 noembers, gvari Seikribos, moi­lo­cos wmin­da­nis samudamo gansasvenebeli – Siom­Rvi­­­mis monasteri, ioane maxareblis xsenebis dRes, 9 oq­to­m­bers, ki qobuleTis raionis sofel cixisZirSi wm. mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres sa­xe­l­ze aS­­e­nebuli taZari, ar daiviwyos saerTo sagvareulo dResaswauli Zelicxovloba (21 maisi). sxva drosac saWiroebisamebr moxdes Sekrebebi, sasurvelia sadResaswaulo dReebSi da wmin­da adgilebSi. oqropiriZeebis sagvareulo istoriis Seqmnis mTavari mizania sakuTari fesvebisken mixedeba. roca gavigebT da kargad gaviazrebT, rom am gvaris mata­re­bel­ni iyvnen didi ganma­naT­leblebi, wminda mamani da patriarqni, Tavdadebuli mebr­Zol­ni Cvenis qveynisa, maSin did pasuxismgeblobasTan erTad dagveufleba WeSmariti siama­yis grZnobac.

          maS ase, erTad SevideT Soreuli warsulis labirinTebSi da istoriul-lite­ra­turuli wyaroebis, sxvadasxva legenda-Tqmulebebis, maTi analizis safuZvelze, mokled warmova­Ci­noT oqropiriZeebis gvaris warmoSobis, maTi istoriuli sacxovrisis, Rirseul mogvare mamu­li­SvilTa cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis istoria.

         RmerTi iyos Cveni Semwe am WeSmaritad sapatio misiis aRsrulebaSi!

    amasTan avRniSnavT, rom oqropiriZeTa sagvareulo istoriis warmoCenis, misi Rir­se­u­li warmo­mad­genlebis dafa­se­­­bisa da farTo sazogadoebisaTvis gasacnobad, gansakuTrebiT  unda aR­i­niSnos goris uni­ver­sitetis ufrosi maswavleblis zurab oqropiriZis mier gaweuli Rvawli da Tavdadeba, ro­melmac didi samuSao gaswia saWiro saarqivo doku­mentebis, is­to­riuli da lite­ra­tu­ru­li wyaroebis gamosavlenad da mosapoveblad, maTi samecniero brunvaSi moqceva-popu­la­ri­za­ciisaTvis, risTvisac mas did madlobas vuxdiT. ar SegviZlia ar avRniSnoT Cvenze mlocveli mamebis, wyneTis RvTismSoblis miZinebis taZ­ris winamZRvris, iRumen ioanesa da qarTas wm. aTanase aleqsandrielis saxelobis monas­tris yofili winamZRvris, sqimiRumen isidores udidesi Rvawli da siTbo, romelic maTgan yo­­­vel­Tvis uSu­r­velad modioda da modis.

    RmerTo, ar mouSalo maTi locva-კურთხევა da msaxureba sruliad saqarTvelos!

    madlobas vuxdiT yvelas, vinc Tavisi wvlili Seitana Cvens saerTo saqmeSi da samomavlodac Tavs ar dazogavs amisaTvis; qalbatonებს cisana და ლია oqropiriZeებs, batonebs _ malxaz, zurab,  nugzar, givi, valiko†, oqro, გია, levan da maTe oqropiriZeebs,  saerTod yvelas, vinc  Tundac sulierad CvenTan iyo, aris da iqneba momavalSic.

     

    Tავი I

    “...keTilgvarovani oqropiriZeni”     

                  

                                                                                                                      უჩა ოქროპირიძე

     

     “...keTilgvarovani oqropiriZeni” –

    oqropiriZeTa gvaris warmoSobis istoriidan

     

          oqropiriZeTa gvari, rogorc qarTul gvarTa umrav­le­s­o­ba pirov­nebis saxelisagan, kerZod, oqropirisagan SeiZle­ba iyos warmoSobili (oqropiri niSnavs mWevrmetyvels, orators, moZRvars). cnobili istoriuli pi­rov­neba iyo erT-erTi udi­desi RvTismetyveli, mecnieri da mwerali, konstan­tinepolis patriarqi ioane oqropiri (347-407 wlebi), romelic sicocxlis bolos afxazeTis biWvinTaSi gadmoasaxles da iq mi­ma­vali gzad komanaSi (kam­an­Si) gardaicvala. 980 wels oSkis lavraSi saqmianobda, cnobili sa­eklesio moRva­we aseve ioane oqropiri. X saukunis dasasruls (980-1001 w. w.) qarTlis kaTalikosi iyo wminda ioane (meoTxe) oqro­piri (980-1001 w. w.), romelic parxlis taZris  (XI s-is) warwerebSi saxeldebulia, ,,qarTlisa da yovlisa aRmosavleTis patriarqad” (metreveli, 2010: 37), rac imaze migvaniSnebs, rom saqarTveloSi patriarqis tituli am droidan arsebobda da am wodebis pirvel matareblad swored es ioane meoTxe oqropiri SeiZleba miviCnioT(silogava: 2008) amave pirovnebazea saubari Satberdiseul krebulSic (Jordania, 1892: 309). 1033-1048 wlebSi ki qarTlis kaTalikosi yofila ioane (mexuTe) oqropiri, romelic ix­se­nieba saeklesio krebis dadgenilebaSi SiomRvimis monastris Seuva­lobis Sesax­eb (pirTa anotirebuli... 2004: 346-349) imave pi­rov­nebis Sesa­xebaa saubari “qarTlis cxovrebis” pirvel tomSi(qarTlis cxovreba, t. I, Tb., 1955: 296), Tedo Jordanias “qronikebSi” (Jordania,1897: 36), iv. javaxiSvilis Txzulebis „qarTveli eris istoriis“ VIII tomsa (javaxiSvili, 1977: 314) da sxvaganac.  Semdgom sa­ukuneebSic am saxeliT araerTi sasuliero piria mox­senebuli: oqropir-moZR­vari, mowme op­izis moZRvar ioanes mier berTas RvTismSoblisadmi micemuli dawe­ri­lisa (XII s.), ioane XI oqro­piri­ – saqar­T­ve­los kaTalikos-patri­arqi (XVI s.), oqropi­ri – wminda samebis ekle­siis dekanozi (XVII s.), oq­ro­piri – bolnisis RvTismSoblis eklesiis dekanozi (XVII s.) da sxva (pirTa anot... iqve). 

    aWaris erisTavT-erisTavs cnobil mwerals, astronomsa da filosofoss tbel abu­serisZes ekuTvnis naSromi galoba wmidaTa iovaneTa naTlismcemelTa, maxarebelisa oq­ro­pirisa“... tbeTis sul­Ta mateanis XI-XIII saukuneTa nusxaSi mox­seniebulia oqropir mo­ZR­vari, kaci oqro giorgieT... kaci oqro WumbasZe, oqropir lomTaTiZe da iordane kaci ­oq­ros-Ze, (tbeTis sulTa...1977: 148, 153) xolo „Tislisa da xaxulis xelnawerebis minawe­re­bis“ teqstSi moxsenebu­lia oqrokaci, oqropir sixaT, oqro­pir sixasZe, sixaT oqropiri da misi deda Tekla, sixasZe oq­ropiri, mona­zoni (Tislisa da xaxulis...1986: 83). naSromSi, _ aWaris livis vrceli da mokle davTrebi, _ moxseniebulni arian zemo aWaris sofel neniaSi mcxocrebi oqropiri Ze gabrielisa (aWaris livis... 2012: 61),  xulaSi mcxovrebi oqropiri Ze karabilisa (iqve, 67), sofel Rorjoms mcxovrebi maxarebel Ze oqropirisa (iqve, 69), qveda kurZas mosaxle oqropiri (iqve, 72), rostevan Ze oqropirisa _ tbeTis rabaTis mosaxle (iqve, 78) da sxva.

    sayuradReboa agreTve 1465 wlis 23 aprilis mcxeTis sigeli (#75), romelSic aRniSnulia,rom igi: ,,...daiwera... moqcevasa meToTxmetesa, q-ks :rng: aprilsa oc-da-samsa xeliTa oqropirisSvilisa maxarebelisasa...” (Jordania, 1897: 285-286). ხოლო თ. ჟორდანიას მიერ შედგენილ „ისტორიული საბუთები შიო-მღვიმის მონასტრისა და „ძეგლი“ ვაჰანის ქვაბთა“ რომელიც წმ. მღვდელმთავარ ალექსანდრეს 1896 წელს გამოუცია, XIV-XV საუკუნის ხუცურად დაწერილ დოკუმენტში ვკითხულობთ: „...და დამიდევს აღაპი მამისა ჩემისათვის... იოანე ოქროპირისა ჩემისა შვილისათვის...“(ჟორდანია, 1896: 47) და სხვა.

    aWaraSi miraTis xeobis istoriul Zeglebs Soris sayuradReboa mdina­re­e­bis Ciru­xisa da uCambis SesarTavTan Suaxevis, igive oqro­piraulis cixe-simag­ris naSTebi, (ruxaZe, 1957: 61-69), rom­lis kavSiri oqropi­riZeTa gvarTan garkveuli ar aris.

    qarTlis oqropiriZeTa gvarSi SemorCenili gadmocemis mixed­viT (mTxro­be­li zu­rab oqropiriZe disevi, 65 wlis), am gvaris mama­mTavari iyo daviT aRma­Seneblis Tana­med­rove saeklesio da saxel­mwifo moRvawe ioane maxarobeli (disevel oqropiriZeTa erT-erT Stos swo­red maxaroblianTi warmoadgens), ro­melic aqtiur monawi­le­o­bas Rebu­lobda daviTis mier gatarebul reformebsa da saxelmwifos aRmSeneblobis saqmeSi; aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom ioane marTlac aris moxsenebuli daviT aRmaSeneblis mier Sio­mRvi­misadmi gacemul ori­ve anderZSi _ pirvelSi, rogorc „sulieri beri da mefis moZRvari“, xo­lo meoreSi, rogorc „qarTlis kaTalikosi“ (naTeli qristesi...2003: 210-213). amis gamo saxelmwifo samsaxuridan wasvlis Sem­deg Rvawlis dasafa­­seblad mefes misTvis mamuli uboZebia samem­kvid­reod, rasac daviTis dam sakuTriv misi kuTvnili sofelic saCuqrad daumata, romelic aRniSnul mamuls zemodan saz­R­vravda. amitomac am sofels xalxma di­se­uli, anu mefis dis mier naboZebi uwo­da. es aris swored oqro­piriZeTa bude-sam­Soblo, sofeli disevi. amave gadmocemis Tanaxmad ioane maxaroblisaTvis daviT aRma­Se­nebelsve miucia gvari oqropi­ris­Ze

     

    disev-kulbiTi omamde (RvTismSoblis eklesia,XIII-XIVss.)  isriT miTiTebul midamoSi daibadnen wm. epikoposi aleqsandre, episkoposi pirosi, kaTolikos-patriarqi leonidi.

     

    iveriis yovlad wmida xatis                                Xs. disevis Zelicxoveli                                                                   

    mobrZaneba disevSi. 2006 w.       

    disevis saTvalTvalo koSki, yovlismWvretela (miTiTebulia isriT, adre Sua saukuneebi)

     

    okupirebuli disevi, rusebis samxedro baza (isriT miTiTebulia ioane maxarebelis midamoebi). 

     

    („iveria“, # 210, 1890). amasTan cnobili faqtia daviT aR­maSeneblis  mierve gacemuli gujaris oqropiriZeTa ojaxSi dacu­lobis Sesaxeb.

    nobili mkvlevari, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori io­seb me­g­reliZe Tavis naSromSi miu­Ti­­T­ebs: „aleqsandre besari­onisZe oq­ropiriZem disev­Si gviCvena erTi gujaris as­li, romlis dedani mcxeTis sionis arqivSi inaxeboda da es piri dekanoz gab­riel oqro­piriZem gadaiRoo. aqve myofi moxuci eqimi besarion oqropiriZe am­bobs, – aRniSnulia avtoris imave wyaro­Si Cvens winaprebs mudam saCiva­ri hqon­daT, - disevi Cven daviT aRma­Se­nebelma gviboZa da nuravin gve­reva Sigo.

    aleqsandrem gviCvena papamisis gancxadebis piri, – ganagrZobs ig­i­ve avto­ri, – romel­Sic is marTlac Civis: disevi daviT aRmaSe­neb­li­dan moyolebuli Cveni, oqropiriZeebis iyo da saqarTvelos ruseT­Tan SeerTebis Semdegac Cven unda gvekuT­vnodeso. am gancxa­de­bas xse­nebuli gujris pirs vurTavT da gTxovT, Cveni Cven mogvax­maro­To“ (megreliZe,1963: 30-31). mocemul gujarSi oqropiriZeTa am sagulvebeli mamulis mcxe­Tis sveti­cxovelze gadacemis, misi sazRvrebisa da masTan erTad keTilgvarovan oqropiriZeTamisTvis Se­wirvis Sesaxeb aris aRniS­nuli (megreliZe, iqve; Cemi sofeli... 2011: 24-25).

    niSandoblivia isic, rom soflis, gvaris mfarveli wmindani uZ­velesi droidan dRe­m­de, ioane maxarebelia, romelic qarTul sasu­liero-saistorio TxzulebebSi ara­erTxel moixsenieba oqro­pirad. mag: tbel abuserisZis „galoba wmidaTa iovaneTa: naTlis­mcemelTa, maxarebelisa oqropirisa...“, an 1218-1227 wlebis arsen kaTalikosis sigeli, sadac naTqvamia: `...da vinc es dawerili da gagebuli w~სა მღუიმისა შეუცვალოს... უწინდელი წ~სა მამამთავრისა იოვანესი ქკ~ზისა, ანუ ოქროპირი ქკ~ზისა... და რაოდენნი სხუანი შემდგომად სხენან ხელით წერილნი სანატრელისა... წ~ისა მამამთავრისა მელქიზედეკისი“. თ. ჟორდანია იქვე მიუთითებს, რომ „იოანე და ოქროპირ ერთი და იგივე სახელია“ (ჟორდანია,1896: 50-51).

    sakuTari saxe­lebidan oqro, oqria, oq­rua, uamravi gvaria nawarmoebi: oqroSiZe-oqroSia­Svi­li, oqrom­WedliZe-oqromWed­liSvili, oqriaZe-oqriaSvili, oqruaZe-oqrua­Svi­li, oqrokvercxiSvili, oqroscvariZe da sxva. oqropiri­Ze­Ta gvari ki unda mom­di­nareobdes sakuTari, an mWevrmetyvelebis, ora­toruli xelovnebis gamo Ser­qme­uli saxelis, oqropirisagan; – oqro­piriZe (oq­ropiraSvili). marTalia Ziri­ – oqro yvelasTvis saerToa, magram Sina­arsobrivad gansxvavebulia.

    rac Seexeba oqropiriZeTa gvaris formireba-warmoSobas, bagrat III-is mefobis periodis amsaxveli ramdenime dokumenti iZleva imis saSualebas, davuSvaT varaudi, rom es procesi jer kidev am mefis dros da SeiZleba ufro adrec dawyebuliyo. 1074 wels dawerili aTonis tyavis wignSi (Tedo Jordania am wignis dedans aTonis manuskripts uwodebs da Tvlis, rom igi dawrilia 1028 wlamde)1011 wlis TariRis qveS naTqvamia: ,,...…qriste Seiwyale beri ioane grZelisZe da sulieri DSvili maTi ioane oqropiri…... romelTa mier aRiwera wminda ese wigni. moixseneT sulieri Zmai Cemi garerCeli wm. Llocvasa Tqvensa”... iqve wminda Teodosis cxovrebis aRweris bolosac, 1013 wlis qveS, aRniSnulia, rom ,,... moixseneT wm. locvasa Tqvensa beri ioane grZelisZe da ioane oqropiri da saba da ivane garerCeli”... (Jordania, 1892: 166). savaraudoa,  aq saqme gvaqvs oqropiris, rogorc gvaris pirvelad xsenebasTan, radgan vfiqrobT, rom orive dokumentSi ioane grZelisZec da ivane garerCelic (iseve rogorc jayeli, Toreli, Tuxareli Tu sxva) gvarebiTaa moxsenebuli. amitomac sruliad dasaSvebia, rom am SemTxvevaSi oqropiric gvaris mniSvnelobiT iyos naxmari, rac sakmaod bunebrivad gamoiyureba.

    vin iyvnen oqropiriZeTa winaprebi?

    gazeT „iveriis“ 1890 wlis # 210-is monacemTa  mixedviT, rasac oq­ro­piriZeTa gvari­sadmi gacemuli daviT aRmaSenebliseulad miC­neu­li sigelic am­tkicebs, sofeli disevi aRniSnul mefes erTguli sam­sa­xuris sanacvlod oqro­pi­riZeebisaTvis uboZebia. aRniS­nul ver­sias iziarebs cnobili istorikosi io­seb megreliZe. versiis mar­Te­bulo­bas adastureben oqropiriZeTa gvaris cno­bili moRvaweebi.

    „matiane qarTlisais“ avtoris cnobiT disev-kulbiTi jer kid­ev XI sau­kunemde ekuTvnoda „wmindasa sveticxovelsa“. amasve gvauwyebs T. Jordanis qronikebis II tomSi daculi 1020 wlis melqisedek kaTalikosis sigelic, romelSic naTqvamia: ,,...Cuen kurTxeulman qarlis kaTalikos-patriarqman melqisedek ...aRvaSene... qarTls monasteri palavra oTxiTa sofliTa cuqiTi SesavaliTa misiTa, yinwvisi SesavaliTa misiTa da Sindebis naxevari: kurbiTis :ra: (101 – avt.) aznaori kargi sofeli erTi: CoCeTs ubani :a: (1 - avt.) miwa davenaxi samefo”…[Jordania, 1897: 33, (1020 wlis melqisedek kaTalikosis sigeli)]. Aamasve adasturebs 1040 wliT daTariRebuli bagrat kurapalatis gujris nawyvetic, romelic, sxvaTa Soris, Tavisi xeliT dauweria ,,...qristesmier kaTalikozsa oqropirs...” da masve daumtkicebia ,,...da mtkice ars ukunisamde”... (iqve, gv.35-36) orive gujarSi moxsenebulia sofeli kulbiTi, romelic daviT aRmaSeneblis mier oqropiriZeTa gvarisadmi gacemul wyalobis sigelSi mTlianad disevis sazRvrebSia moqceuli (Jordania, 1892: 181-188)

         istorikosi roland TofCiSvili eTnografiuli masalis safuZvelze miiCnevs, rom oqropiriZeTa winapari, saxelad oqropiri, liaxvis xeobis uki­du­resi zemo welidn, is­to­riuli dvaleTidan gadmosaxlda disev­Si. zemoaRniSnul ambebTan es Tqmuleba TiTqmis ar modis winaaRmde­go­ba­Si. dvale­Ti, qarTveli tomis xalxiT dasaxlebuli, uZ­velesi qarTuli pro­vincia iyo. igi, jer kidev V saukunidan vaxtang gorga­salma niqo­zis saepiskoposos dauqvemdebara. IX-XI saukuneSi ki centraluri xe­li­sufleba cdilobda arabTagan da Semdeg Turq-sel­Cuk­Tagan ara­er­T­gzis mo­ox­rebuli, xalxisgan dacarielebuli Sida qarTlis aRorZi­nebas. am­itom mTi­ani re­gionebidan barSi intensiurad xdeboda qarT­vel­Ta nawilis Camosax­leba. dva­leTs am mxvriv didi roli unda eTamaSa qarTlis momZlavrebis saqmeSi.

    saistorio Txzulebis „matiane qarTlisai”-s mixedviT qarTlis kaTalikosma mel­qisedekma gamoarCia Sida qarTlis ramde­nime sofeli „SesavaliTa mi­si­Ta“ sveticxovlisaTvis Sesa­wiravad. mis Semdgom pe­riodze ki ase mogviTxrobs igive matiane: „da gar­daicvala wmida ese da aw warumarTen RmerTman oqro­pirs, melqisedekisagan Svi­lad gaz­rdilsa. dajda kaTalikos-patriarqad oqropiri da am­an­ca mravali Se­mata didsa kaTolike eklesiasa... wmidaman aman kaTalikos-patri­ar­qman oqro­pirma mravali eklesia aRaSena da ganaaxla...“(qarTlis cxov­reba, 1955: 295-296; pirTa anot... iqve).

    SeiZleba daiSvas ver­sia, rom xom ar aris erTi da igive pirovneba  melqi­sede­kisagan „Svilad gaz­rdili“ oqropiri da gvaris eTnarqad miCneuli (diseveli) maxarebel-oqropiri? miTumetes, rom uwmindes patriarq melqise­deks axlo urTier­Toba hqonda Sida qarTlTan. orive oqropiris cxovre­bis xana ki droSi sainteresod emTxveva erTmaneTs. magram rogoradac ar unda iyves, erTi ram udavoa: gvaris mesaZirkvle diseveli oqro­piri unda yofiliyo, gamorCeuli sasuliero moRvawe. saerTod ki oqropiri, Tavidan rogorc Tikuni, Semdeg ki pirovnebis sakuTari saxeli _ rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, _ mWevrmetyvelTan, oratorTan, moZRvarTan aris dakavSirebuli.

    amasTan unda iTqvas, rom xalxis mexsierebaSi SemorCenili Tqmuleba-warmo­dge­ne­bi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, istoriuli sinamdvilis adamianTa xsovnaSi daleqili re­a­lobis gamiTiurebuli asaxvaa; yovelive amas Tu davumatebT zemo aRniSnul sxva garemoebaT da maTi analizis mi­xedviT vimsjelebT, SesaZlebelia, rom oqropiriZeTa gvaris eTnarqi, io­ane-ოქროპირ-maxarobeli, swored qar­Tlis kaTalikos-patriarqebis oqropir IV-isa da oqropir V-is (an erTis, an kidev meoris) STamomavali, an axlo naTesavi yofiliyo (droSic kargad emTxveva maTi zeobis xana, 980-1001 da 1033-1048 wlebi, daviT aR­maSeneblis moRvaweobis wina periods) da iqneb swored amis gaTva­lis­winebiT mis­ca daviT mefem mas gvarad oqropirisZe. amasTan, rogorc istoriuli realoba da pirTa anotirebuli leqsikonigviCvenebs saxel oqropiris ma­tarebel pi­rovnebaTa umravlesoba saeklesio mo­Rvawea(pirTa anot.... iqve).

    rac Seexeba daviT aRmaSenebliseulad miCneuli wyalobis wigns, romliTac samarTlianad amayoben oqropiriZeebi, mkvlevarebSi az­r­Ta sxvdasxvaobas iwvevs. zogierTi miiCnevs, rom dokumentis avtori qarTlis me­fe daviT meaTe (1505-1525) SeiZleba iyos. Tumca oqropiriZeebis gvaris TiTqmis yvela gamoCenili moR­vawe ad­asturebs, rom aRniSnuli sigeli (wyalobis wigni) wminda daviT aRmaSeneb­lise­ulia, rasac mxars uWeren sxva istoriuli wyaroebic.

    savaraudoa, rom daviT aRmaSenebelma oqropiriZeebs gamorCeuli damsa­xu­rebisaTvis uboZa es midamo da sofeli disevi ,,Tavis samarTlianis samzR­vre­biT“ Seswira sveticxovels. aRniSnuli azri gaziarebulia gazeT ,,iveriis“ 1890 wlis 210-e nomerSic. mkvlevar ioseb megreliZes naSromSi ,,warwerebi da sxva siZ­veleebi patara liaxvis xeobaSi“, (megreliZe,1963: 30-31) mohyavs cnobili sasu­liero moR­vaweebis  gabriel dekanozis (1824-1904), mRvdlis aleqsand­re oqro­pi­ri­Zis, diakvan vladimer oqropriZis da sxvaTa saCivrebi: ,,disevi daviT aRma­Seneb­lidan moyolebuli Cveni, oqropiriZeebis iyo da saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Sem­de­gac Cven unda gvekuTnodeso“. (iqve)

     saqarTvelos damsaxurebuli eqimi, profesori besarion oqropiriZe werda: ,,Cvens winaprebs mudam saCivari hqondaT, disevi Cven daviT aRmaSenebelma gviboZa da nuravin gve­reva Sigo...“

    sigeli, romelzec vsaubrobT, XVIII s-is II naxevarSi, siZvelis gamo erekle meoris TxovniT ganuaxlebia anton kaTalikoss. Tavad teqsti anton kaTalikosma gadaawerina dekanoz iovanes. cnobili istorikosi, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori ioseb megreliZe aRniSnul dokuments ufro ,,galobani sinanulisanis“ avtorisad miiCnevs da teqstis bolos miTiTebuli TariRiT, (1516)?, gakvirvebas kiTxvis niSniT gamoxatavs.

    sigelSi vkiTxulobT: ,,q. nebiTa RvTisaTa Cven mefeT mefem afxazeTisaTa aRmo­sa­val­-dasavalamde mpyrobel patronma xelmwifeman daviT da Zeman-Ceman dimitriman ese mtkice da ucilobeli Semowirulobisa sigeli mogaxseneT Tqven caTa sworsa sasosa Cvensa sveticxovelsa da mas Sina aRmarTebulsa da kvarTsa sauflosa da mironsa wmidasa Semog­wireT sofeli disevi Tavis samarTlianis samzRvrebiTa. ase mogvixsenebia da Semo­gvi­wiravs saqare gzamdisin, wurbelT wyaromdisin da saTibis wveramdisin, Rrma gzam­di­sin, berijvris wveramdisin da saTibis wveramdisin, saoso gasayar gzamdisin, iqiT sai­kor­To gzamdisin, gaxvretil qvamdisin, sasadilo wyalmdisin, furTsadgomamdisin, wiTel koS­kamdisin, naserlebi, Cxokuris wyalamdisin, mrgvliv tyemdisin da tbamdisin, kvira­cxov­lis gzamdisin, da nacaryana xevamdisin, zeiT gzamdisin da qveviT Saramdisin es sofeli disevi mrgvliv samzRvriT Semogviwirams yovelis kacis ucileblad da ula­parakod da xelSeuSlelad mogvirTmevia da kacni Semogviwirams keTilgvarovani oqropiriZeni mo­sax­leni daviT da nikoloz da maliaZe demetre eseni Tavisis mTiTa, bariTa da abilax­ta­uri Tavisi sawisqviloTi, es asre mogvixsenebia da Semogviwirams Tqven sveticxovelsa da kvarTsa kaTalikossa dosiTeossa; Seiwire mcire ese Sesawiravi, da nacvlad gvage dResa mas gankiTxvisasa, xolo damamtkicebeli da romelmac amas Slad xelyos, risxams RmerTi da yovelni misni wmindani da sveticxoveli da CvenTa codvaTa mier gankiTxvisa dResa mas gankiTxvisasa, xolo damtkicebuli amisani RmerTman akurT­xos.

    daiwera xeliTa mRvdelmonazonis egnatisaTa Tvesa aprilsa ig (13 – avt,) qkn [s] sd (204 – avt,), xel­Car­Tuli ese ars. daviT mefe vamtkiceb. nebiTa RvTisaTa Cven yovelis saqarTvelos patronma, mefis iraklis Soris Zeman antoni daviT mkvidrisaman gardavawerine wigni ese winaSe Cvenisa sionis dekanozis iovanes umetnaklebod, romelisaca mkvidri Cvena gvaqvs“. ­(TariRi 1516 w.?). (megreliZe,iqve; Jordania,1897: 334])

    rig garemoebaTa gamo migvaCnia, rom aRniSnuli dokumenti wminda daviT aRmaSe­neb­lis xelidan momdinareobs. winamdebare sigelSi moyvanili samefo titulatura, ,,mefeT mefe afxa­zeTi­sa­Ta da aRmosaval-dasavalamde mpyrobel patroni“, didgoris Semoqmeds ufro Seefereba, vidre danawevrebuli, isic aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erT-erTi kuTxis mefes. Tu­­m­­ca, erTi ram mainc dasazustebelia: wyaros mixedviT, qarTuli eklesiis saWeTmpyrobeli dosiTeosia, daviT aRmaSeneblis dros Tedo Jordanias qronikebis mixedviT – ioane (Jordania, iqve, mefesa daviTs monazoni arsen): 70], roin metrevelis uaxlesi monacemebiT ki _ 1090 wlamde dimitri, Semdeg basili III 1090-1100wlebSi, Semdeg ki mas 1104 wlidan mosdevs ioane VI, ruis-urbnisis krebis Tavmjdomare, (metreveli, 2012: 55-56) oqropiriZeTa gvarSi SemorCenili Tqmuleba-gadmocemebis ioane maxarebel-oqropiri. Mmaxarebeli da oqropiri rom erTmaneTis badalia, amis Sesaxeb araerTgzis aris miniSnebuli Tedo Jordanias qronikebSi da es aris dafiqsirebuli abuserisZe tbelis naSromis zemoT moy­va­ni­­li saTaurSic. Tu ar CavTvliT 1100-dan 1104 wlamde arsebul gaurkvevel sicarieles, romlis periodSic SeiZleba davuSvaT dosiTeosad saxeldebuli pirovnebis kaTalikos-patriarqoba, sxva aseTi vinme daviT aRmaSeneblis zeobisas ar Cans. rac Seexeba qarTlis mefis, daviT X-is mefobis xanas, qarTlis kaTalikosad ixsenieba doroTeos II (1507-1511, zogan 1516). roin metrevelis mixedviT ki am dros doroTeosis (1503-1505 da 1511-1516 w.w.) garda kaTalikos-patriarqebi iyvnen ioane VIII (1505-1509 w.w.), dionise (1509-1511 w.w.) da basili VI (1517-1528 w.w.). (metreveli,2010: 82-84) ase, rom dosiTeosi aqac ar fiqsirdeba. Mmagram Tundac davuSvaT, rom dosiTeosi igive doroTeosi iyo, es arafers ar cvlis, radgan yvelaze ufro savaraudoa, rom daviT X ara sigelis avtori, aramed siZvelis gamo, patara kaxis msgavsad, misi ganmaaxlebelia da garkveuli cdomilebani romelime gadamweris Secdomam gamoiwvia. (Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom doroTeosi da mefe dimitri erTad arian moxsenebuli daviT aRmaSeneblis mefobis Semdgom axlo periodis, 1154 wlis giorgi mTawmindelis werilSi, romelSic doroTeosi naxsenebia rogorc 70 moswavlisaTvis datovebuli sa­kiTxavis avtori,  romelic wm. giorgi mTawmindels uTargmnia laTinuri enidan ber­Znul da qarTul enebze). (Jordania, 1897: 78-79)

    amasTan cnobilia 1392 wels Sed­ge­nili sia mcxeTis saeklesio mamulebisa, romelSic saqarTvelos sxva soflebTan erTad pirdapir Setanilia sof. Ddisevic. masSi naTqvamia: “...kualad sofeli zerti TvisiTa mamuliTa, nasoflari, saTibi; sofeli qveSi; sofeli flavi; sofeli disevi; sofeli CxikeTi; sofeli saTixari;……da rac qarTls, kaxeTs, anu somxeTs da sxuaTa adgilTa ymani da mamulni yofilan aw Cven gujriTa amiT ganvaaxleT da vaTarxneT yovlisa samefosa xarjisagan...(Jordania,1897: 195-198). adre moxseniebul gujarTa monacemebsac Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, yvelaferi es imis dasturia, rom disevi 1516 wlamde didi xniT adre ukve Sewirulia sveticxovlisadmi. aRniSnuli gujari   xelmowerilia ase:  „mefe aleqsandre vamtki­ceb nebiTa RTisaTa“ da aqvs dasmuli beWedi warweriT „mona RvTisa aleqsandre~. nu­s­xa aRniSnuli gujris SemdgomSi daumtkicebia svimon mefes (+1599 w.), rostoms (+1656 w.) giorgis (iqve, gv. 197), saidanac Cans, rom sigel-gujarTa ganaxleba Cveulebrivi praq­tika unda yofiliyo im  periodis saqarTveloSi. ამასთან შიო-მღვიმის აღნიშნულ მამულების შესახებ უნდა იყოს საუბარი 1445-1469 წლების შიო მღვიმის სიგელში, რომელშიც ნათქვამია:„...მეფეთ-მეფემან გ~გი და მეუღლემან ჩ~ნმან პატრონმან დედოფალმან ნესტან-დარეჯან ესე სიგელი გკადრე... შიოს უდაბნოს მღვიმისა... მას ჟამსა, ოდეს კარზედა მოგუიდეგით და ძუელნი გუჯარნი და განაჩენნი მის სულკურთხეულისა აღმაშენებლისა დავითისი და ჟამთა უკანასკნელობისა  და შლილობისაგან დიადი წესი და საქმე შეცულოდა და სულკურთხეულსა მამასა ჩემსა ხელ ეყო...“(ჟორდანია, 1896: 73)

    da bolos,  Cveni am Sexedeulebebisa da aRniSnuli sigelis daviT aRmaSe­neb­­li­sadmi kuT­­vnilebis  irib dasturad SeiZleba miviCnioT 1534 wels nikor­wmindis xucurad dawe­rili sigelic gacemuli imerTa mefis bagrat mesamis mier, romelSic naTqvamia: „...Semov­swireT sofelni da dabani ...T-qn w-o g-i mTisa mTavarmowameo! rogoraTac daviT aRma­Seneblisagan da Zisa misisa dimit­risa­gan Semowiruli yofiliyo...“, da „...Cven mefeTa-mefem afxazeTisaTa aRmosaval-dasavalamde mpyro­bel patronma xelmwifeman daviT da Zeman Cemman dimitriman ese mtkice da ucilobeli Semowi­ru­lebisa sigeli mogaxseneT...“, rogoradac daviT aRmaSenebliseulad miCneuli Cveni gvaris momxsenebeli gujari iwyeba, faqtiurad unda miuTi­Tebdes am or dokumentSi moxsenebul pirovnebaTa identurobaze.

    agreTve aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom T. Jordanias „qronikebis“ meore tomSi aR­­nusxul (gv. 344-345) 1519  wlis qvaTaxevis monasterze  Sewirulebis sigelSi, 1526 wlis  mcxeTisa (gv. 368-369) da 1550 wlis (gv.390-391) qvaTaxevis sigelebSi, yvelgan moxseniebulia mefe daviT me­a­Tis Svilebi, – luarsabi, adrazani da ramazi. erTaderTi dokumenti, sadac am mefis Svi­lad dimitria moxsenebuli, aris „qarTlis cxovrebis“ meore tomSi aRnusxuli cnoba (qarTlis cxov­reba,1959: 492), romelic 1518 wels momxdar ambavTa Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs. masSi naT­qva­mia, rom „aRiZra yaeni da warmovida saqarTvelos saqristianosa; xatTa da juarTa yuelasa atyuevebdes. patronman mefeman daviT Tvisi Svili ramaz gagzavna da yaens wina miageba da daixsna saqristiano. da dahyo raodenime xani merme dRiTa keTiliTa aRsavseman aRirCia keTili nawili da iqmna monazon, da uwodes saxelad damiane. da esxa Zeni samni: luarsab, dimitri da ramaz.“ magram amave movlenaze, zustad 1518 wlis qveS, T. Jordanias zemoT dasaxelebul qro­nikebSi (gv. 335) oTxjeraa saubari da arcerTxel ar aris naxsenebi dimitri ufliswuli (yvelgan laparakia luarsabi, adrazanisa da ramazis Sesaxeb), rac “qarTlis cxovrebaSi” am faqtTan dakavSirebiT daSvebul uzustobaze unda miuTi­Tebdes. amasTan sagulisxmoa isic, rom daviT meaTisa da misi Svi­lebi­sadmi miZRvnil sigelebSi samive vaJi _ luarsabi, adrazani, ramazi, yovelTvis erTadaa moxsenebuli da romelime maTgani mamasTan erTad calke araa dafiq­sire­bu­li, rogorc es daviT aRmaSenebliseulad miCneul gujarSia gakeTebuli.

    yovelive zemoT aRniSnuli,  kidev erTxel Cveni mosazrebebis sasar­geblod mety­ve­lebs, rom xsenebuli wyalobis sigeli uciloblad daviT aRmaSe­neblis xelidan unda iyos gamosuli. (u. o.)

    rogorc Cans, sxvadasxva epoqis erTiani saqarTvelos, Tu qarTlis mefeebs ara-er­Txel ganuaxlebiaT oqropiriZeebis sagvareulo soflis – disevis sveticxovlisadmi Se­wirulobis sigeli. erT-erT SemTxvevaSi mis ganmaaxleblad qarTlis daumorCilebeli da gmiri mefe simon I (1556-1600) gvevlineba. 1559 wels aRmosavleT saqarTvelos kaTo­li­kos­-patriarqis, domenti I-is (1556-1560) TxovniT simon mefem (igi zemoTnaxsenebi qar­Tlis mefis – disevisadmi boZebuli sigelis savaraudo ganmaaxleblis, daviT meaTis SvilisSvilia) disevTan erTad sveti­cxo­vels daumtkica Zveli Sewirulobebi, romelsac mcxeTis didi sigeli ewodeba (Jordania, 1897: 400-401) masSi miTiTebulia sveticxovelis kuTvnili mamulebi, soflebi maTi sazRvrebiT.

     yvelaferi zemoT ganxiluli, sofel disevisa da masSi mcxovrebi Zi­ri­Ta­di gvaris – oqropi­riZe­e­bi­­sadmi qarTu­li samefo xelisuflebis mniSvnelovan yuradRebaze metyvelebs, rac aRniSnuli sagvareulos warmomadgenelTa RvTisa da sam­Sob­losadmi keTilmsaxurebis Sedegad unda miviCnioT. qarTl-kaxeTis me­fis erekle meoris mier daviT aRmaSeneblis si­gelis ganaxleba ki imis das­turia, rom sofeli disevi XVIII saukunis bolomde mcxeTis sveticxovlis  sa­kuTrebas warmoadgenda.   

    Tu Tvals gadavavlebT Zvel qarTul sigel-gujrebs, wyalobis wignebs, davrwmun­debiT, rogori sizustiT arian isini Sedgenilni. Semwirveli adresatisadmi Sewirul yve­la wvrilmans aRnusxavs. daviT aRmaSeneblis mier oqropiriZeebisadmi nawyalobev sigel­Si zedmiwevniTaa naCvenebi sveticxov­li­sa­dmi boZebuli disevis sazRvrebi. sigeli oqro­pi­riZeebs ,,keTilgvarovanT“ uwo­debs. rogorc Cans, didma daviTma “keTilgvarovan oqropiriZeebs” oficialurad uboZa vrceli teritoria da igi dauqvemdebara mcxeTis sveticxovels, riTac gagrZelda maTi Tavdadebuli msaxureba samSoblosa da deda eklesiisadmi.

    wminda ioane oqropiri gvmoZRvravs: “araferia ufro wmin­da, vidre ena, romelic ube­durebis Jams hmadlobs ufals! WeSmaritad getyviT: arafriT gan­sxvavdeba igi mowameTa enisaganda igive gvirgvins Re­bu­lobs...“(„yovelTa Sina hmadlob­deT“...2009-2010: 8-9

    da adamianur saT­q­melSi, romeli sityva gamoxatavs am wminda enas ufro ukeT, vidre oqropiri, e. i. ena, romelic mudam Jams hmadlobs ufals; amitomac misgan oqropiriZeTa gva­ris warmoSobis SesaZ­leb­loba metad sandomian saqmed migvaCnia; radgan, gana vinme ar isurvebs iseT saZirkvels, romelic ukvdavebazea daSenebuli, gana vinme uar­yofs iseT ma­mas, romelsac CvenTvis maradiuli faseulobebis Caner­gva ganuzra­xavs, – da gana RvTis­Tvisac saTno ar iqneba wmindanTa na­kurTx embazSi ganbanos Cve­ni lamazi gvaris ufli­sa­dmi erTgulad namsaxuri memkvidreni?!! miTumetes, es Tu dokumentebiTac mxardaWerilia.

                                                    gamoyenebuli literatura da wyaroebi:

     

    beqiriSvili, 1996: - beqiriSvilii., aWaris istoria gvar-saxelebSi, baTumi;

    metreveli, 2010: - metreveli r,. erTiani saqarTvelos mefeebi da patriarqebi, gamomc. “artanuji”, Tbilisi;

    silogava, 2008: - silogava v.,patriarqi X saukunis saqarTveloSi. Pparxlis warwera, oSki, Tbilisi;

    Jordania, 1892: - Jordania T., qronikebi, I, tfilisi;

    Joradnia, 1897: - Jordania T., qronikebi, II, tfilisi;

    Jordania, 1896: - Jordania T., istoriuli sabuTebi Sio-mRvimis monastrisa da Zegli vahanis qvabTa, tfilisi;

    pirTa anot...2004: - pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni, III, saqarTvelos mecn. აკად.     კ. kekeliZis xelnawerTa institut, gamomc “artanuji”, Tbilisi;

    qarTlis cxovreba, 1955: - qarTliscxovreba, t. I, Tbilisi;

    ქართლის ცხოვრება, 1959: - ქართლის ცხოვრება, ტ. II, თბილისი;

    javaxiSvili, 1977: - javaxiSvili iv., qarTveli eris istoria (Tormet tomad), tomi VIII, Tbilisi;

    tbeTis sulTa... 1977: - tbeTis sulTa matiane, Tina enuqiZis gamocema, Tbilisi;

    Tislisa da xaxulis... 1986: - Tislisa da xaxulis xelnawerebis minawerebi, teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da saZiebeli daurTo darejan kldiaSvilma, Tbilisi

    aWaris livis... 2012: aWaris livis vrceli damokle davTrebi, osmaluri teqsti, Targmani, gamokvleva, komentarebi da fotoaslebi gamosacemad moamzades: z.aSikaZem da mirian maxaraZem, Tbilisi;

    ruxaZe, 1957: - ruxaZe S., darCiZeebisa da Suaxevis cixe-simagreebi, aWaris assr saxelmw. muzeumi, Sromebi, t. II, saxelmw. Ggamomcemloba, baTumi;

    oqropiriZe, mTxrobeli zurab oqropiriZe, 65 wlis;

    naTeli qristesi... 2003: - naTeli qristesi saqarTvelo, w. 1, anderZi daviT mefisa Sio mRviisadmi, iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomc., Tbilisi;

    gaz. “iveria” - gaz. „iveria“, #210, 1890;

    megreliZe, 2000: - megreliZe i., warwerebi da sxva siZveleebi patara liaxvis xeobaSi, saqarTvelos mecn. akademiis moambe, #5, Tbilisi;

    vardosaniZe, 2000: - vardosaniZe s., saqarTveloskaTalikos-patriarqi leonidi (1918-1921 w.w.),Tbilisi;

    Cemi sofeli...2010: Cemi sofeliliaxvis xeoba, Jurn. „karibWe“,#9 (122), 30. IV-15. V;

    ყოველთა შინა ჰმადლობდეთ, 2009-2010: - „ყოველთა შინა  ჰმადლობდეთ“(წმ. იოანე ოქროპირის მიხედვით), ჟურნ. „საპატრიარქოს უწყებანი“, # 4, 24.XII.09-7.I. 10;

     

     

     

     

     

    Okropiridze’s having Kind Surname” – from the history of Okropiridze’s Surname

    Resume

    The present work discusses brief history of origin of Okropiridze’s Surname. They say that surname Okropiridze should have derived from the name of a person having spiritual title or the additional name- Okropiri and the surname Okropiridze was given by Davit The Builder to the Johanne herald.

    The surname is mentioned in the Deed of Grace given by David the Builder where the talk is about Svetitskhoveli and “Okropiridze’s having Good Surname”. The scientific discussion is given hereby  that the mentioned Deed is really of David The Builder and the direct and indirect evidence of it are shown and accordingly the appropriate conclusions are made.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

                                                                                        

     

     

     

                                                                                                 უჩა ოქროპირიძე

                                                    

                                                                   qobuleTis oqropiriZeebi

     

    rac Seexeba oqropiriZeTa qobuleT­is raionSi damkvid­re­bul nawils, zemoT ukve vi­sa­­ubreT rogorc qar­Tl­Siise aWaraSi mcxovreb am gvaris war­mo­­madgenelTa xsovnaSi Se­mor­Cenil Tqmuleba-gadmocemebis Sesaxeb. am gadmocemaTa mix­ed­viT maTi pirvel sacxo­v­risi dise­vi­dan wamosvlis Semdeg qobuleTis raionSi kintri­Sis xeoba iyo, sadac axal­mosaxleebs ka­ra­vi gaumarTavT tyemlis gverdiT. aqedan modis ma­Ti aqauri fuZe-sofel tyemakaravis saxel­wodebac. (tyemalkaravi, Semdeg ki tyemakaravi).

    gvaris qobuleTeli uxucesebi dursun, ramiz da suliko oqropiriZeebi adastu­re­ben wi­naparTa gadmocemebs, rom qobuleTeli oqropiriZeebi warmoSobiT Sida qarTlidan, kerZod ki, disdevidan arian, ris Sesaxebac cnoba, gvaris wevrebs Soris, Taobidan Taobas gadae­ce­moda.

    oqropiriZeTa qobuleTis Sto gayofilia ramdenime gvarad. esenia: sakuTriv oqro­pi­ri­Ze­ebi, marTaliSvilebi, devriSaZeebi da gamarjobaZeebi; gvaris gayofa rodis moxda, zustad da­d­gena Znelia. magram, rogorc sofel qaquTSi mcxovrebi 80 wlis suliko oqro­piriZe gad­mo­gvcems, es unda momxda­riyo XIX saukunis II naxevridan, radgan visac pirvel marTa­li­­­Svilebad ic­nobdnen, kerZod, Sexan, xasan, qibar da yesti marTaliSvilebs, maTgan arc erTis gar­dacvaleba me ar maxsovso aRniSnavs mTxrobeli (s. oqropiriZe dabadebulia 1933 wels, aRniSnul pirebs daaxloebiT 70-70 weli rom ecocxlaT, maTi cxov­reba marTlac XIX sauku­nis II naxevarsa da XX saukunis I meoTxedze movi­doda u. o.). oqro­piriZeTa gvaridan amave periodSi daewera devriSaZed osman devriSaZe da aseve gamar­joba­Svile­bic  (qobuleTis r-nis sof. qaquTSi... 2011)  ambobs igive pirovneba.

    sainteresoa agreTve qaquTis Temis sof. na­badaSi mcxovreb 81 wlis ramiz oqropi­ri­Zis cnobac, romlis mixed­vi­Tac oqropiriZeTa gvaris 7 Zmis erT-erTi warmomad­ge­neli, romel­sac jojukas eZaxdnen, gadavida guriaSi da daiwera mJavanaZed, dRes ki misi STamo­mavlebi gu­ri­a­Si arian sofel WanieTis mJavanaZeebi. aq­e­dan unda iRebdes saTaves qobule­Tis oqropi­ri­ZeTa erT nawi­l­Si gavrce­lebuli mcdari mosazreba maTi gvaris guruli mJa­vana­Zee­bi­dan wa­r­momavlobis Sesaxeb. iyo ki piriqiT“, (iqve, sof naba­da...2011)aRniS­n­avs batoni ra­mi­zi. aseve mcdaria i. beqiriS­vi­­lis varaudi da qobuleTel oqropi­riZeTa gvaris zemo aWaridan xi­no­Si gada­ba­rgebul oqroaSvilebTan da­kavSireba. (beqiriSvili, 1996).

    rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, qobuleTel oqropiriZeTa pirvel da­sax­lebas kintriSis xeobaSi arsebuli sofeli tyemakaravi warmo­ad­genda, saidanac SemdgomSi isini qobule­Tis raionis sxvadasxva sof­lebSic gadasaxldnen da damkvidrdnen.

     

    Turqi istorikosis nebi gu­muSis cnobiT 1835 wlisTvis sofel tyemakaravSi yofila 102 komli da­axloebiT 660 mcxovrebiT, ( Nebi Gumus, Acara Tarihi...…3) aleqsandre frenkelis 1878 wlis mona­cemiT ki 50 komli 211 kaciT. (frenkeli al., narkvevebi...2012, 60)  xolo di­mitri baq­ra­Ze Tavis wignSi „arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi“ wers:„...dav­toveT koba­la­u­ri da sakmaod maRali TxemiT so­fel tyemakaravisken gavemar­TeT. aq adgi­l­o­b­riv skolaSi Se­gvi­pati­Jes. iq ormociode ymawvili iyo; zogi maTgani Tavisuflad ki­Txu­lobda da werda Turqulad. garda amisa, maswavlebels Turme qar­Tuli wera scodnia. mas moewona Cemi xel­wera da mTxova, qarTuli an­bani damiwereo“.(baqraZe d., arqe­olo­giuri mogzauroba... 1987, 86)

    1923 wlis qobuleTis soflebSi Catarebuli mekomurTa aRweris mixedviT sof. tyemakaravSi saxlobda oqropiriZeTa 17 ojaxi 92 mcxovrebiT, qaquTSi – 6 ojaxi 45 mcxo­v­­re­biT, nacxavatevSi – 4 ojaxi 26 mcxovrebiT, koxSi – 2 ojaxi 13 mcxovrebiT, sku­raSi – 4 oja­xi 28 mcxovrebiT, alambarSi – 3 ojaxi 16 mcxovrebiT, kamarovkaSi – 1 ojaxi 2 mcxovrebiT da leRvaSi – 1 ojaxi (mcxovrebTa raodenoba miTiTebuli ar aris u.o.). e. i. 1923 wlisTvis qo­bu­leTis raionis 9 sofelSi cxovrobda daaxloebiT 40-mde ojaxi (38), 240-mde (232) su­liT (acsa, ფ. რ-237, ან. 1, ს. 1, 1923 wlis...) ap. silagaZisa da anz. ToTaZis 1997 wels gamocemuli wignis, gvar-saxelebi saqarTveloSimonacemebiT ki qobuleTis raionSi cxovrobda 818 su­li oqropiriZe (sul saqarTveloSi 3269, aqedan gorsa da goris raionSi 1008, qobu­leTSi rogorc aRvniSneT 818, TbilisSi – 743 da da­narCeni saqarTvelos sxva adgi­leb­Si). (silagaZe ap., ToTaZe anz., gvar-saxe­lebi...1977, 158). ოქროპირიძეები დღეს აჭარასა და ქობულეთის რაიონში ცხოვრობენ სოფლებში: აგარა, ალამბარი, აჭყვა, ბობოყვათი, გვარა, დაგვა, ზინითი, კვირიკე, კონდიდი, კოხი, ლეღვა, მახინჯაური, მუხაესტატე, მწვანე კონცხი, ნაცხავატები, სამება, სკურა, შადრევანა, ქაქუთი, ჩოლოქი, ციხისძირი, წყავროკა, ჭახათი, ხუცუბანი, აგრეთვე ქალაქ ქობულეთსა და ბათუმში.

    rogorc Cans, tyemakaravidan oqropiriZeTa pirveli talRa masTan momijnave qaquTis Temis soflebSi gogmaCaurs, nacxavatevs, na­badasa da Semdeg qaquTSi unda gadasaxlebuliyo.

    qaquTi mdebareobs md. Coloqis saTavesTan guria-aWaris sazRvarze. ozurgeTis raionis mxridan mas gaRma qaquTi esazRvreba. rogorc Jurnalisti nugzar oqropiriZe mis mier CvenTvis mowodebul masalaSi igonebs, mas ax­sovs misi bavSvobis droindel leqsze dawerili simRera, romelSic iyo aseTi strofi:

    aqeT qaquTi, iqeT qaquTi,

    SuaSi Coloqi Camonaquxi

    (oqropiriZe n., zogierTi ram...2011)

    istoriul wyaroebSi ganagrZobs batoni nugzari, – sofeli qaqu­Ti pirvelad moxse­ni­ebulia zaqaria WiWinaZis aWaraSi mogzaurobis dros. am periodSi z. WiWinaZis mixedviT sofelSi 65 komli sax­lob­da (1887 w.) maTgan yvelaze gavrcelebuli gvarebi yofila oq­ro­pi­ri­Ze, qarcivaZe, beraZe, megreliZe da a. S. zaqaria Tavis CanawerebSi mi­uTiTebs, rom sofeli qaquTi erTaderTi dasax­lebuli punqtia, sa­dac ucxo tomelebma jamis ageba ver moaxerxeso.

    dReisaTvis sofel qaquTis TemSi 375 komli saxlobs da maT Soris 15 ojaxi oqropi­ri­Zea. amdenive ojaxi am soflidan wasulia da ZiriTadad aWaris sxvadasxva terito­ria­zea dasaxlebuli.

    nugzar oqropiriZe Tavis statiaSi igonebs misi babuis, 95 wlis murad oqro­piri­Zis, romelic 1978 wels gardaicvala, naambobs, rom igi Cvens kuTxesa da sofels yovelTvis qarTul miwa-wylad Tvli­da, romelsac Tavs adga da amSvenebda elias cixe. aqve, sofel gogma­Ca­u­ridan 2 kilometrSi aris Tlili qvisagan agebuli TiTqmis 300 sa­fexuriani kibe, romlis maxlobladac mSvenieri wyaroa. am wyarosTan, gadmocemis mixedviT xis didi nageboba iyo aSenebuli, sadac gadi­o­da samimosvlo gza tao-klarjeTisaken.

    oqropiriZeebi, – aRniSnavs igive avtori, – rogorc Cveni mamebi da papebi ityodnen, qarTlidan mosulan, elias  cixis CrdiloeTiT, tyemlis ZirSi daudgamT karavi da iq da­saxlebulano, ris gamoc am sofels tyemalkaravi, xolo SemdgomSi tyemakaravi daerqva. so­felg gogmaCaursa da sxva soflebSic oqropiriZeebi aqedan gadasulan.

    babua imasac ityoda, – gviambobs batoni nugzari, – rom qaquTis Tem­Si pir­veli marani, axal droSi, mas mouwyvia da pirveli Rvinoc murad oqropiriZis ojaxSi dauwuravT. „erTerTi megreliZis ojax­Si Rvino rom mivitane, iaraRis JRaruni atyda, murad oqropi­ri­Zem Rvino rogor moitanao“ uTqvams babuas. Cveni sofeli da misi Semogareni rom Zveli Rvi­nis kulturis kera iyo iqedanac dasturdeba, rom roca 1954-55 wleb­Si sofel gogma­Ca­u­rsa da nacxavatevSi samanqano gza gahyavdaT, ramde­nime qvevri iqna aRmoCenili. didi zo­mis qvevri aRmoCnda mu­rad oq­ropiriZis samosaxlozec, roca iq 1961 wels axali saxlis mSe­nebloba daiwyes. qvevris ZirSi SemorCenili iyo Sesqele­buli Savi siTxe (Rvi­nis nar­Ceni).

    batoni nugzari imasac igonebs, rom murad babua ityoda, Cveni gvaris STa­moma­val­ni, xSir SemTxvevaSi, maRlebi da pirmSvenierebi ariano. ambobda imasac, rom iseTi gva­re­bi rogoricaa marTali­Svi­le­bi, devriSaZeebi, gamarjobaSvilebi da Tavad oqropi­ri­Zeebi er­Ti fes­vidan modis da maT Soris qorwineba dauS­ve­be­liao.

    qaquTis TemSi da saerTod aWaraSi, Zalian didi avtoritetiT sargeb­lob­da qeskin oqropiriZe. Semdgomi aseve gavleniani da xal­xSi gamosuli pirov­ne­ba iyo misi Svili ilia oqropiriZe, romelmac aWaraSi oqropiriZeebis gvaris pirveli Sexvedra moawyo. es is kacia, romelmac nacnoboba da mimosvla aRadgina goris raionis oqropiriZeebTan.

    me mxvda wilad bedniereba igonebs batoni nugzari – 1982-1984 wlebSi baton il­i­asTan erTad vyofiliyavi sofel disevSi, omar oq­ropiriZis ojaxSi. dRes batoni omari co­cxali aRar aris, magram me axlo urTierToba maqvs mis SvilebTan, Tamilasa da gior­gisTan. Cve­ni Svilebi erTmaneTs kargad icnoben da ojaxebiT vurTierTobT.

    metad saintereso Strixs Seicavs baton iliasa da nugzar oq­ropiriZeebis Sexved­ris aRwera q. zugdidis qaRaldis kombinatis ma­Sindel direqtorTan, oTar facacias­Tan, sa­dac isini Sexvdnen oqro­piriZeTa gvaridan iq moxvedril pirovnebas, romelic JRentis gvar­ze iwereboda.

    saqme imaSia, rom istoriul war­sulSi leRvaSi mcxov­rebi oqropi­riZe­ebis ojaxi­dan, (kerZod, Tanamedrove So­Ta oqropi­­riZis didi winaprebis ojaxidan), saqar­TveloSi tyve­Ta syidvis pe­ri­odSi, moutacniaT da-Zma da samegreloSi erT-erTi Tava­dis­Tvis miuyi­diaT. gasula wlebi da ojaxis ufross isini zrdasrulebi da daojaxe­bulebi zug­didSi upovnia da maT STamomavlebTan bolo dromde hqonda urTierToba SoTa oqropiriZes.

    saerTod unda aRiniSnos, rom oqropiriZeTa gvari yovelTvis Tavis simaR­leze idga da cxovrebac sakmaod kargad hqondaT mowyo­bili flobdnen miwebs, misdevdnen mecxo­ve­leobasa da mefut­kreo­bas, iyvnen Tavisi droisaTvis kargad ganaTlebulni da SeZ­lebul­ni. amitomac iyo, rom qaquTSi mcxovrebi loman-aRa oqro­piriZe (nugzar oqropiriZis ba­bu­is didi babua) da SeiZleba zo­gierTi sxva sofelSi mcxovrebi oqropiriZebic azna­u­re­bi iyvnen.

    ქობულეთელ ოქროპირიძეთა ღირსეული წარმომადგენელი იყო ქესკინ ოქროპირიძე. ასევე  გავლენიანი პიროვნება იყო მისი შვილი ილია ოქროპირიძე, რომელმაც აჭარაში ოქროპირიძეების გვარის პირველი შაეხვედრა მოაწყო. იგი ერთ-ერთი პირველი დაუკავშირდა ოქროპირიძეთა ბუდე სოფელში  დისეველ ოქროპირიძეებს. ქობულეთელი ოქროპირიძეების დარაზმვა და დისევთან კიდევ ერთხელ დაკავშირება სცადა სულიკო ოქროპირიძემ (ქობულეთი, ფიჭვნარი), რომელიც, სამწუხაროდ, სულ მალე  ავტოკატასტროფაში დაიღუპა.

    ცნობილი პიროვნება იყო მევლუდ ოქროპირიძე, რომელიც დაიბადა 1898 წელს მაშინდელი ქობულეთის მაზრის სოფელ ლეღვაში. სათანადო განათლების მიღების შემდეგ, 1927 წლიდან ჩაის ტრესტის სალიბაურის საჭოთა მეურნეობის, ხოლო1929 წლიდან ჩაქვის ჩაის საბჭოთა მეურნეობის დირექტორია, სადაც მისი ხელმძღვანელობით გაშენდა ახლი ჩაის პლანტაციები და ციტრუსოვანთ ბაღები. ამავდროულად წარჩინებით დაამთავრა თბილისის სუბტროპიკული კულტურების საკავშირო ინსტიტუტი და მიენიჭა უმაღლესი კატეგორიის აგრონომის წოდება. მუშაობდა საქართველოს ჩაის ტრესტის  სისტემაში, აჭარის ასსრ  მიწათმოქმედების სახალხო კომისრად, ჩაის ტექნიკუმის დირექტორად. 1934-1937 წლებში ჩაისა და სუბტროპიკული კულტურების ანასეულის სამეცნიერო-კვლევითი ინსტიტუტის ზუგდიდის ფილიალში ჯერ აგრონომ-ეკონომისტი, შემდეგ  დირექტორი იყო. დაწერა მეცნიერული შრომები, თანამშრომლობდა ცნობილ მეცნიერებთან, მათ შორის აკადემიკოსებთან ნ. ვავილოვთან და ვ. ვილიამსთან. 1937 წელს დააპატიმრეს და გადაასახლეს. გარდაიცვალა კიროვის ოლქის კოლონიაში. (ცივაძე თ., ბოლქვაძე ლ., იაკობაძე ვ., აჭარის ა. რ. სოფლის მეურნეობის ისტორია, ბათუმი, 2014, გვ. 96-97). misi Svili, SoTa oqro­piriZec,  sxvadasxva maRal Tanamdebobebze moRvaweobda, bolos ki aWa­ris ა. რ. prof­kav­Sirebis Tavmjdomare iyo. კითხულობდა ლექციებს ბათუმის შრს უნივერსიტეტში. მისი ვაჟი daviT SoTas Ze oqro­piriZe aris eqimi-anesTeziologi da amJamad muSaobs baTumSi, aWaris res­pub­­likur saavadmyofoSi, yavs meuRle da Svilebi.

    Tavad aq gamoyenebul mogonebaTa avtori, nugzar oqropiriZe profesiiT ag­ronomi, aris soflis meurneobis mecnierebaTa kandidati. muSaobda respublikuri sawar­moo­-agro­nomiuli la­bo­ratoriis gamged da ge­ne­raluri direqtoris moadgiled. gamoqvey­nebuli aqvs didi ra­o­de­nobiT statiebi da samecniero xasiaTis werilebi. bolo ramdenime wlis ganmav­lo­baSi muSaobda gazeT aWarisspe­ci­alur korespondentad. dRes muSaobs aWaris avtono­mi­uri respublikis soflis meurne­obis saministros agro-servis cen­t­ris memcenareobis ganyofilebis ufrosad.  yavs meuRle da qal-vaJi.

    oqropiriZeebi cxovroben kintriSis xeobis soflebSi WaxaTi, ko­xi, sofe­l qobu­le­­Ti, xucubani, sameba, agreTve sofel zeniTSi, al­ambarSi, muxaesta­teSi, leRvaSi, kondidsa da cixisZirSi da sxva. maTgan sakmaod cnobil pirovnebas war­moadgenda sofel qobuleTSi mcxovrebi, 1901 wels dabadebuli, ramiz axmedis-Ze oqro­piriZe, romelic am sofel­Si 1935-1943 wlebSi Tavmjdomareobda aq Seqmnil pir­vel sasoflo-sameurneo artels, Semdeg ki muSaobda sxvadasxva sapa­suxismgeb­lo Tanamdebobaze. misi Svilebi iyvnen ilia da je­mal oqro­pi­riZebi, romel­Ta­gan pirveli umaRlesi sasoflo-sameurneo ganaT­lebis mi­Re­bis Semdeg muSaobda xulos raionis mTavar agronomad, xolo 1956 wli­dan gadmoiyvanes qobuleTis raionis komkavSiris pirvel mdivnad, Semdeg ki muSaobda saxelmwifo uSiS­roe­bis organoebSi. jemal oqro­pi­ri­Zec saqarTvelos subtro­pikuli meurneobis insti­tu­tis damTav­rebis Semdeg sxvadasxva Tanamdebobebze muSaobda, xo­lo 1975-1979 wleb­Si iyo qobuleTis citrusebis SemfuTavi qarxnis direqtori. M(masala mogvawoda merab oqropiriZem _ qobuleTi)

    aWaris dRevandelobaSi Tavisi niWiT, patiosani saxeliTa da saqveyno saq­mi­sadmi Tav­dadebiT Tavi gamoiCina aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis mTav­ro­bis adminis­tra­ciu­li urTierTobis departamentis yofilma axalgazrda Tavmjdomarem sulxan oqropiriZem. dRes igi qobuleTis municipalitetis sakrebulos Tavjdomarea, rome­lic didi imedis  momcemi kadria da ara marto Cvens  gvarsa da kuTxes, aramed sruliad sa­qar­T­velosac unda eimedebodes aseTi  momavalisa.

    dRevandel periodSi qobuleTis raionidan Cveni gvaris saqmianobaSi gan­sakuT­re­biT aq­tiuroben uCa, zurab, ro­dam, merab, jumber, levan, koba, amiran, revaz,  jemal, nodar, malxaz da nugzar oqropiriZeebi. maTgan uCa da zu­rab oq­ro­piriZeebi iyvnen TiT­qmis yve­la, Cveni gvaris mier wamowye­bu­li saqmis inici­atori da mTavari organizatorebi.

    xolo rac Seexeba levan oqropiriZes, man saZirkveli Cauyara udides saqmes da so­fel cixis­ZirSi aSenebs wminda mRvdel­mTavar aleqsandres (oqropiriZe) saxe­lobis ekle­si­as. am saqmeSi CarTuli arian Cveni gvaris sxva war­momadgenlebi da axal­gaz­rde­bic, rom­lebsac, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, Tavisi wvlili SeaqvT am did saSvilTaSvilo saqmeSi.

    warmoSobiT qobuleTis raionis sofel zeniTidan aris am wignis Semdgeneli da erT-erTi avtori, istoriis doqtori, profesori uCa oqropiriZe, romelic amJamad cxovrobs baTumSi. igi SoTa rusTavelis sa­xelmwifo univer­sitetSi niko ber­Ze­ni­Svilis institutis istoriis ganyofi­lebis mTavari mec­ni­eri TanamSromelia, amas­Tan kiTxulobs leqciebs saqarTvelos sapatriarqos tbel abuserisZis uni­ver­site­tSi. igi aris mravali samecniero naSromis, maT Soris 6 mo­no­­g­ra­fi­is av­­to­ri. yavs meuRle inga rTveliaSvili da sami Svili, – daTa, baCana da fiqria oqropiriZeebi, SviliSvili lazare და გაბრიელ oqropiriZeები.

     

    Cemi sofeli - elias cixe

     

    mdinare Coloqis saTaves, sofel gogmaCaurs, nacxavatevs, naba­das, qaquTs, mTlia­nad ozurgeTis, lanCxuTisa da qobuleTis raio­nebs gadmohyurebs VI-VII sau­ku­neebSi sami mTis Sesayarze agebuli elias cixe.

    mxcovani adamianebis gadmocemis mixedviT es cixe Tavis droze agebulia mdinare kintriSis Walidan xelidan xelSi miwodebuli qvis masaliT. marTlac, mSeneblobisaTvis gamoyenebuli qvebis si­didiT Tu vimsjelebT, es asec unda yofiliyo, radgan axlo-maxlo qvis karieri arsad ar aris. gadmocemis mixedviT cixes TavdacviTi da sadazvervo funqcia ekis­reboda, rad­ga­nac igi tao-klarjeTisaken mimaval gzaze aRmarTul safortifikacio nagebobaTa nawils warmoadgenda da xinos mTasTan misvlamde erT-erTi strategiuli punqti iyo. mtris Semosevisas masze cecxls anTebdnen niSnis misacemado, – ambobdnen xanSi Sesulebi. cixis galavani 5-6 metris simaRlisaa, misi mTliani zeda farTobi 600 kvadratuli metria. gad­mo­cemiT, aq wylis Sesagrovebeli rezer­vuaric hqoniaT. es, albaT, advili SesaZlebeli iqneboda, radganac aq xSirad nisliani amindebi icis da wvims kidec. mosuli naleqebis fil­traciis Sedegad ki moxdeboda wylis saTanado rezervuarSi dagroveba.

    cixeze mxolod erTi, gogmaCauris mxridan SeiZleba asvla, sxva mxriv is miuvalia. cixes uSualod ekvris soflebi: gogmaCauri, tye­ma­karavi, WaxaTi, zeniTi, aWyvisTavi, leRva, nacxavatevi, nabada da sxva. cixis Semogareni irgvliv farTo foTlovani tyeebiTaa dafa­ru­li. am cixeze bevri Tqmuleba da legenda arsebobs. erTi leqsi, ro­me­lic ozur­ge­Tis mxareTmcodneobis muzeumSia daculi, Tavis dro­ze sofel gogmaCauris mkvidrs, am soflis maswavlebels, karg mefut­kresa da sufris momlxens, qobuleTis kolorits – Saqro oqropiriZes ekuTvnis. saerTod es cixe mecnierulad Seswavlili ar aris. varaudiT igi gvianfeoda­lur xanaSi unda iyos ganaxlebuli.

    ai, am zRapruli garemos Ziridan iRebs saTaves dRes aWaraSi mcxovreb oqro­piri­Ze­Ta gvari Ta­vis istorias. rac Seexeba Saq­ro oqropiriZis leqss, – „elias mTao maRa­lo“, – is am cixesTan dakavSi­rebuli lamazi Tqmuleba-gadmocemebis um­Svenieresi xal­xuri, poe­tu­ri gaazrebaa, amitomac saWirod vscaniT misi sruli saxiT aq war­moCena. ai, isic:

    elias mTao maRalo,

    wminda elias saxl-karo,

    ras imuqrebi RrublebSi,

    maSineb ver gadaxvalo,

    CaCutad sio mogzavne,

    yurSi CamZaxe tyvexaro“,

    wminda giorgi mwyalobs da

    guli miCiva Caxvalo,

    risTvis irjebi, ras merCi,

    fexSeborkili myavxaro“,

    erTi yelamde amiSvi,

    qvemoTken Tavi davxaro,

    veRar damiWer, Tu ginda

    Tavs risxva gadamayaro,

    el-WeqiT, Weqa-quxiliT,

    rom SesZra mTeli samyaro,

    TovlSi buCqebi Caxergo,

    Tavs setyva gadamayaro,

    xoSkakliT, Tovlis zvavebiT

    savali gzebi dafaro,

    yelamde TovlSi Cafluli

    gegonos ver wamixvalo,

    mogikvde, Tu ar gaTqmevino,

    vaJkaco devsa gavxaro“.

    1954 weli. SoqropiriZe, saxalxo mTqmeli.

    (sixaruliZe i., samxreT-dasavleT saqarT...1959, 111)

    batoni Saqro sofel gogmaCauris, da saerTod, qobuleTis rai­onis koloriti da Cveni samSoblos didi patrioti iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom qalaq qobuleTSic hqonda saxli, Tavisi cxovrebis udi­desi nawili gogmaCaurSi gaatara. roca sofel gogmaCaurSi 1952 wels osman oqropiriZis ojaxSi gaixsna pirveli dawyebiTi skola, xolo SemdgomSi, 1954-1955 wlebSi, saxeldaxelod aigo dawyebiTi skolis xis lamazi Senoba, misi direq­to­ri da ucvleli maswavlebeli iyo Saq­ro oqropiriZe. misi deda nina surgulaZe warmo­So­biT (guriidan) WanieTeli iyo. Saqro oqropiriZem umaRlesi ganaTleba TbilisSi mi­iRo (iyo rusuli enisa da literaturis maswavlebeli); hqonda araC­veulebrivi xma da kargad ukravda fandursa da akordeonze. iyo ga­zeT qobuleTis“ (maSin gazeTi leni­ne­li“) StatgareSe korespon­dentic. darCa Svili daviT oqropiriZe, romelic amJamad cxovrobs  qalaq qobuleTSi. hyavs meuRle manana komaxiZe da Svilebi  baCana da jaba oqropi­ri­Ze­ebi.

     

    mogoneba masalebiTurT moamzada da mogvawoda  nugzar oqropiriZem                                                        

     masalis redaqtireba da gamosacemad momzadeba moaxdina uCa oqropiriZem

                                                             

    gamoyenebuli literatura da wyaroebi:

       

    beqiriSvili, 1996: - aWaris istoria gvar-saxelebSi, baT., 1996, gv.  146-150;

    qobuleTis raionis...…2011: - qobuleTis raionis sof. qaquTSi 2011 wlis ivlisSi Catarebuli eqspediciis masalebi, mTxrobeli suliko oqropiriZe, 78 wlis; iqve, qaquTis sakrebulo, sof nabada, mTxrobeli ramiz oqropiriZe, 81 wlis;

    Nebi gumush: - Nebi gumush, Acara Tarihi icin yeni bir kayanak, Nebi gumus@yahoo.com ;

    ფრენკელი ალ, 2012: - al. frenkeli, narkvevebi Curuq-suze da baTumze, gamosacemad moamzada avtoris biografia, SeniSvnebi, leqsikoni da saZiebeli daurTo ramaz sumaniZem, Tb., 2012, gv. 60;

    ბაქრაძე დ, 1987:  - baqraZe d., arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, gamomc. aWara, baT., 1987, gv 86;

    აცსა, 1923: - acsa, f. r-237, anaweri #1, saqme #1 (1923 wlis monacemebi qobuleTis soflebSi Catarebuli mekomurTa aRwerisa);

    სილაგაძე ავ, თოთაძე ანზ., 1977: - silagaZe av., ToTaZe anz., gvar-saxelebi saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1977, gv. 158;

    ოქროპირიძე ნ, 2011: - oqropiriZe n., zogierTi ram sofel qaquTsa da mis sakrebuloSi mcxovreb oqropiriZeTa gvaris Sesaxeb, baTumi, 2011, 27 maisi;

    სიხარულიძე ი, 1959: - sixaruliZe i., samxreT saqarTvelos toponimika, II wigni, Tb., 1959.

     ცივაძე თ, ბოლქვაძე ლ, იაკობაძე ვ, 2014: - ცივაძე თ., ბოლქვაძე ლ., იაკობაძე ვ., აჭარის ა. რ. სოფლის მეურნეობის ისტორია, ბათუმი, 2014, გვ. 96-67;

    მასალა მოგვაწოდა მერაბ... 2012: - მასალა მოგვაწოდა მერაბ ოქროპირიძემ - ქ. ქობულეთი, 2012;

                                                                                                  

                                                               

     

                  sqimiRumeni isidore (oqropiriZe),  zurab oqropiriZe, uCa oqropiriZe

    disevi – oqropiriZeTa sagvareulo bude-sofeli

     

    Sida qarTlSi, mdinareebis patara liaxvisa da mejudis wyalgamyofi qedis dasavleT mTiswineTSi mdebareobs oqropiriZeTa sagvareulo bude-sofeli disevi. Sida qarTlis uZvelesi saxelwodebaa “zena sofeli”, rogoradac mas leonti mroveli moixseniebs (leonti mroveli, q. c. 1955) Sida qar­Tls ,,zena soflad“ moixseniebs qarTveli istorikosi juanSeric (XIs): ,,arCil mefem siZeebs ,,orTav gauyo zena sofeli, romeli ars qarTli...“ (juanSeri, q. c. 1955). Aam saxeliT misi dafiqsireba, akademikos simon janaSias azriT, elinistur xanaSi unda momxdariyo (janaSia s., 1952)

    qarTlis reformatorma mefem farnavazma (Zv.w. IV-III s.) “zena sofeli” calke sagamgeblod გამოყო da მისი გამგებელი სპასპეტი ყველა ერისთავზე მაღლა იდგა („მთავრობით განაგების ყოველთა მთავართა ზედა“). მანვე ქართლი Sesabamis administraciul erTeulebad dayo. maTgan erT-erTi iyo mdinareebis – patara liaxvisa da mejudas Soris moqceuli teritoria, romelic gverdisZirad moixsenieboda. am teritoriaze centraluri adgili disev-kulbiTis xeobas kava. liaxvis marjvena napirs ki sacxumeTi ewodeboda. aRniSnul teritoriebsa da orive liaxvis saTaveebs XV-XVII saukuneebSi qsnis erisTavebi daeuflnen.

          patara liaxvis xeoba (gverdisZiris CaTvliT) Tavisi geografiuli da strate­giu­li mdebareobiT erT-erTi gamorCeulia qarTlSi. masze gadioda aRmosavleT da dasav­leT saqarTvelos damakavSirebeli gzebi. cnobili germaneli mogzauri giuldenStedti roca kaxeTidan gamomgzavrebula, patara liaxvis gavliT gadasula samaCabloSi, iqidan ki – imereTSi. orive liaxvis xeobidan ZvelTaganve arsebobda umoklesi gadasasvlelebi Crdilo kavkasiaSi, rac garkveul sikeTesTan erTad safrTxesac Seicavda. aRniSnulis ga­mo, qveynis samefo xelisufleba metad zrunavda Sida qarTlis am nawilis Tavdac­vis­una­ri­anobaze.

    disevi patara liaxvis maRalmTianeTis qveda sartyelSi, e. w. gardamaval zonaSi mde­bareobs. aq kavkasiis masStabiT erT-erTi saukeTeso klimaturi pirobebia: saucxoo ha­va, zafxulis sigrile da zamTris zomieri sicive, flora-faunis mraval­fe­rovneba, ma­co­cx­lebeli da samkurnalo wyaroebi... mTa-baris nazavi, SesaniSnavi bunebrivi pirobebi Zve­l­Taganve xels uwyobdnen disevsa da mis mimdebare soflebSi soflis meurneobis, me­c­x­o­veleobis ganviTarebas. aqauri xili da Rvino gansakuTrebiT aroma­tu­li da mimzidvelia Tavisi sagemovno TvisebebiT: ,,...da ars adgili ese venaxovani, xi­liani, mosavliani... brinj-bambis garda yovelni scendebis nayofierad. viTarca davwereT qarTlsa. aramed Rvino aqauri Txeli da momJavo garna saamo ars sasmelad...“ werda cno­bili geografi da istorikosi vaxuSti batoniSvili.

          arqeologiuri aRmoCenebiT dasturdeba, rom Sida qarTlSi adamiani Zveli qvis xa­ni­­dan saxlobda. disevis dasavleTiT cxra kilometris daSorebiT sof. tyviavSi meore msoflio omis win arqeologebma aRmoaCines yorRanuli tipis samarxi, romelic adre brin­jaos xanas ganekuTvneba. patara liaxvis xeobebis zeda da Sua welSi arqeologiuri samuSa­oebi ar Catarebula. gasuli saukunis 30-ani wlebis bolos specialistebs disevSi dauwyi­aT gaTxrebi, magram meore msoflio oms SeuSlia xeli. miuxedavad amisa, glexebma miwis damuSavebisas araerT keramikul nawarms, qarTvel mefeTa moWril Tu ucxour mo­ne­tebs miagnes. disevis samxreT-dasavleTiT, xilis baRebis Tavze aris SemaRlebuli adgi­li, romelsac nacargoras uwodeben. diseveli meqanizatori levan oqropiriZe ambobda, rom rodesac traqtoriT goraze Sevdeqi, Signidan  sicarielis xmas gamoscemda da SeSinebuli maSinve Camovedio. soflis aRmosavleTiT, e. w. nacercvalis midamoebSi aR­mo­Cenil iqna vercxlis samajurebi, mZivebi. imave midamoebSi mRvdel aleqsandre oqro­piriZis gadmocemiT, romelic Tavis droze Caiwera liaxvis xeobis siZveleTa cno­bilma mkvlevarma ioseb megreliZem, aRmoCenila akldama, romelSic 12 Tavis qala iyo. ufro ze­viT, mdinare diseuras ayolebaze miwis Camongrevisas gamoCnda didi qvevrebi. disevis dasavleTiT ki Cangreula samarxi da Sig liaxvis Walis qviT amoyvanili yofila kedeli.

    disev-kulbiTi (kulbiTi uZvelesi sofelia, romelic zed ekvroda disevs da dro­Ta viTarebaSi Seerwya mas) ZvelTaganve yofila dasaxlebuli, rasac mowmobs zemo­aR­niSnuli siZveleni, qarTvel mefeTa mier gacemuli wyalobis sigelebi da mis midamoebSi mdgari aTaswlovani da meti xnis taZrebi: soflisa da gvaris mfarvelis, wminda ioane maxarebelis, Zelicxovelis (X s.), wminda giorgis, kulbiTis RvTismSobelis (XIII-XIVs.), wminda marines (adre Sua saukuneebi), qaSueTis, kviracxovelis (Sua saukuneebi) saxelobis eklesiebi, baCilas salocavi. am patara xeobaSi 18-mde eklesia-monasteri Tu  maTi naSTia SemorCenili.

    moxerxebul adgilze mdebareobda mterTagan araerTgzis aoxrebuli kulbiTis ci­xe (yovlismWvretela) da disevis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT mTis wverze adre Sua sauku­ne­e­bis SambireTis saT­valTvalo koSki. isini Sida qarTlis Tavdacvis erTian sistemaSi um­niS­vnelovanes rols TamaSobdnen. es e.w. zurgiani koSki iseT adgilzea agebuli, rom aqedan meTvalyureni mtris Semotevas patara li­axvis TiTqmis yvela sofels atyobinebdnen. igi oTxi sarTulis donezea SemorCenili, nagebia kargad damuSavebuli qviT. Signidan datanili aqvs saurdule. Crdi­­­loeTis kedelSi (saidanac safrTxes elodnen) saTofurebia datanebuli. disevis mTianeTis yvelaze maRali – orboZalis qedis (z. d. 1960 m., agebulia zedapiruli Tixa-fiqlebiTa da qviSa-qvebiT. metad cicaboa misi samxreTi da dasavleTi kalTa) ZirSi, soflis aRmosavleTiT uZvelesi nasoflari (Tu naqalaqari) naqalaqevia. aq idga miqel­­gab­ri­elis saxelobis eklesia (Sua saukuneebi). misi dReoba ,,miqelgabrieloba“ ga­­zafx­u­lze imarTeboda... disevis samxreTiT, naqalaqevisken mimaval gzaze nasoflari beri­jva­ria. Cvenamde moaRwia adre Sua saukuneebSi agebulma monastris nangrevebma, rome­lic age­bulia adgilobrivi natexi qviT. ikiTxeba sxva nagebobaTa, rogorc samo­nastro, ise sacxovrebeli tipis naSTebic.

    mrvalismetyveli toponimi imaze metyvelebs, rom aTaswleulis miRma disevsa da mis SemogarenSi saero-samonastro cxovreba Cqefda. omianobis SemTxvevaSi aseT mniSvne­lovan adgilze arsebuli samonastro kerebic  Tavdacvis zRuded gadaiqceoda xolme.

    disev-kulbiTTan mimarTebaSi metad sagulisxmo informacias gvawvdis T. Jordanias “qronikebis” II wignSi mocemuli melqisedek kaTalikosis 1020 wlis sigeli, romelic gvauewyebs: ,,wmindaman meufeman kaTalikos-patriarqman melqisedek moiRo qarTls monasteri palavra oTxiTa sofliTa: da cuqiTi SesavaliTa misiTa,  yinwvisi SesavaliTa misiTa da Sindebis naxevari; kurbiTis (igive kulbi­Ti - u. o.) :ra: aznauri (q. c-Si saaznauro – u. o)  kargi sofeli :a: CoCeTs ubani :a: miwa da venaxi samefo... da romelni sofeli Zuelad hqondes wmidasa deda-qalaqsa (q. c-Si sueticxovelsa – u. o.) da kaTolike eklesiasa da sxua Sesavalni rac iyvnes movaxsene gamzrdelsa Cemsa bagrat kurapalatsa da Seuvalad gamixadnes da miboZes simtkice Seuvalobisa... ესე ვითა სულდიდებულსა და სულკურთხეულსა გაmზრდელსა ჩემსა და ვჰკადრო მელქისედეკ კათალიკოზსა და გაუგია თავისი სულისათვის, ადიდენ ღმერთმან ძლიერთა მეფეთა დაუმტკიცებიათ, მეცა უღირსსა, გლახაკსა რეცა სახელით კათალიკოზსა დამიმტკიცებია, ქართლისა პატრიარქსა, მტკიცე ჰყავნ ქრისტიანეთაგანმან კაცმან... ესე ვითა დიდებულსა მამასა ჩემსა მელქისედეკს ქართლისა კათალიკოზსა* (აქ გუჯარი  №378 უმატებს „იოვანეს“) ... დაუწერია და იოვანე მღდელი დაუწერია და მათისა სულისა მღდლად და ჟამისა მწირველად დაუწესებია და მისი გასარომელი უჩენია თვისითა ხელითა სიმტკიცე დაუწერია, ადიდენ ღმერთმან, ძლიერთა მეფეთა დაუმტკიცებია, და მეცა გლახაკსა ქრიტესა მიერ კათალიკოზსა ოქროპირს ჩემითა ხელითა დამიწერია, და მათი ბრძანებული დამიმტკიცებია და მტკიცე არს უკუნისამდე იოანესთვის ნებიერი არს იოანე ყოვლისა ამის ბრძანებულისა, ვისთვისცა იოანეს უნდეს მიცემად და დატევებად...“  (Jordania T., qronikebi, w., II, tfilisi, 1897, igive sigelis Sesaxeb, ,,matiane qarTlisai“, ucnobi avtori, ,,qarTlis cxovreba“, 1955). es is cnobili melqisedek kaTalikosia (1010-1033), romelmac Tavisi moR­va­we­obiT ganamtkica qarTuli eklesiis avtoriteti, rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise saerTa­So­riso asparezze. melqisedek I saqarTvelos eklesias mesaWeobda maSin, rodesac iqmneboda erTiani saqarTvelo. am did istoriul procesSi gansakuTrebuli iyo uwmindesi patri­arqis Rvawli. qveynis erTianobis simbolod iqca mis mier ganaxlebuli da faqtiurad axlad age­buli sveticxovlis taZari. qarTuli eklesiis meTauris moRvaweobis amsaxveli Ziri­Ta­di wyaro mis mierve Sedgenili dokumentia – ,,dawerili melqisedekisa mcxeTis saydri­sadmi“ (igi Seadgines da gamosces T. enuqiZem, v. silogavam, n. SoSiaSvilma, Tb. 1984), sadac mra­valTan erTad moTxrobilia, rogor SeuZina uwmindesma patrirqma sveticxovels 135 so­fe­li. zemoaRniSnuli cnoba swored am dokumentidan moaqvs ucnob mematianes. aq mox­se­ni­ebuli kulbiTi, rogorc aRvniSneT, mdinare diseuras marcxena mxares lamaz borcvze ga­Senebuli uZvelesi istoriuli sofelia. igi imdenad mWidrodaa disevs mikruli, rom istoriulad orive erT teritoriul organizms warmoadgens. Zveli da axali drois mkvlevarebi xSirad am midamos disev-kulbiTad, an calke disevad da kulbiTad moix­se­ni­eben (isini xSirad erTmaneTSic ereodaT sxvadasxva drois avtorebs). oqropi­riZe­eb­isa­dmi nawyalobev daviT mefis sigelSi kulbiTi mTlianad disevis sazRvrebSia moqceuli. ori soflis aseTi mWidro Tanacxovrebis magaliTia didi liaxvis soflebi: xeiTi da saba­wminda. istoriul wyaroebSi erTic da meorec, xan damoukidebel erTeulebad ixse­ni­e­bian, xanac xeiT-sabawmindad.  XX s-Si ki disev-kulbiTis msgavsad, sabawminda Seerwya xeiTs.

    saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi disevel-kulbiTelTa Wiri da lxini erTi iyo. orive sof­lis mTavari religiuri dResaswauli mariamobasTan da giorgobasTan erTad wminda ioane maxarebelis xsenebis dRea. kulbiTSi sxvadasxva gvarebi cxovrobdnen, disevSi ki – mxolod oqropiriZeebi (ase iyo XX s-is dasawyisamde). rodesac didi geograf-isto­riko­si vaxuSti batoniSvili wers: ,,erTvis patara liaxvs aRmosavleTidam meris-xevi, am xevze aRmosavleTiT ars orboZalis mTis kalTasa zeda kulbiTs cixe...“ aq disevic igulis­xme­ba. mkvlevari kulbiTis cixis adgil­mdebareobas miuTiTebs, amitom aqcents, bunebrivia, kulbiTze akeTebs. amdenad, anonimi avtoris cnoba kulbiTTan erTad sveticxovlisadmi disevis Sewirulobasac gvavara­u­de­binebs. rogorc ,,qarTlis cxovrebidan“ irkveva, es Se­wi­ruloba ar axalia. mematiane gad­mogvcems, rom es soflebi ,,ZuelTaganve hqonia wmidasa sueticxovelsa“. bagrat kurapa­la­tis mier [bagrat meსამe  (978-1014 წლები) – avt.] sveticxovlisadmi Sewirul soflebs upirvelesad evalebodaT qarTuli eklesiis momarageba sasuliero kadrebiTa da Wirna­xu­liT. es imas niSnavs, rom  sofeli gamorCeuli unda yofiliyo rogorc uflisadmi rwme­niT, ise ekonomikuradac. ek­lesiisadmi nivTier SesawirTa Soris mTavari adgili miwa-venaxs ekava. ucnobi mema­ti­a­nis cnobaSi naxsenebia ,,miwa da venaxi sasefeo“. es termini samefo, sauflo, sameufeod gan­kuTvnils, Sewiruls  niSnavs. es midamoebi uZvelesi dro­idan gamoirCeoda vazisa da Rvi­nis kulturiT, rasac disev-kulbiTSi napovni araerTi saRvine daniSnulebis nivTi mowmobs. vaxuStic xom werda am adgilebis Sesaxeb: ,,...da ars adgili ese venaxovani... mo­savliani... aramed Rvino aqaur saamo ars sasmelad...“

    am periodis werilobiT ZeglebSi ukve mkvid­rdeba termini ,,venaxi“ (sicocxlis xe). Rvino aucilebeli elementia rogorc saero, ise saeklesio gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT. pur-Rvinis siuxve, misi frTxili, zomieri gamoye­ne­ba Tavisi siwmindis gamo (igi xom uflis xorcsa da sisxls ganasaxierebs) mudam qar­Tveli kacis sulier-kulturul da materialur winsvlas moaswavebda. vazi xom mara­diul­o­bis simboloa.

    mravalmniSvnelovania ucnobi avtoris sityvebi: ,,yovelni sofelni, romelni arian wmi­disa kaTolike eklesiisa (e. i. sveticxovlisa – avt.) aaSena yovelgan saxlni da eklesiani...“ cxa­di xdeba, rom am midamos Tavisi starategiuli mdebareobis gamo mniSvnelovan yuradR­eb­as uTmobs საქართველოს saero da sasuliero xelisufleba. amagreben soflebs, ageben cixe­ebs, eklesia-monastrebs da sxva strategili daniSnulebis obieqtebs. regionSi sayovelTao aRmSeneblobis, aseve soflis sveticxovlisadmi kuTvnile­bis dastu­rad savaraudod bagrat me­­samis mefobis wina xanaSi agebuli disevis Zeli­cxovelic kmara. masze srulad aisaxa va­z­is simbolika. eklesiis aRmosavleT fa­sad­ze, sarkmlis ze­moT vazis lerwze yurZnis mtev­ne­b­ia gamokveTili. mis marjvniv, mtevnis qveS iremi da mis qveS lomia gamosaxuli. samwu­xa­rod, dro-Jamis gamo veRar ikiTxeba taZ­ris samSeneblo war­wera (mis wakiTxvas Seecada isto­ri­is me­c­nierebaTa doqtori, profesori ioseb megreliZe), Torem igi bevr saidum­los axdida fardas.

    meaTe saukuneSi disevSi Zelicxovlis saxelobis taZris ageba gvafiqrebinebs, rom am droisaTvis is ukve sveticxovlisadmia Sewiruli (ucnobi avtoric wers amas). ,,sveti“ da ..Ze­li“ xom sinonimebs warmoadgenen da erTdaigive Sinaarss Seicaven (an, erTdaigive sagans aRniSnaven).

    cnobili ambavia, rom roca wminda mefe miriani wminda ninos miTi­Te­biT mcxeTaSi xis ek­lesias agebda, veraf­riT aRmarTes mTavari sveti, Zeli – naZvis xisgan damzadebuli. wminda qalwulis, ninos locviT movlenilma angelozma aswia sveti da ,,wariRo simaRleTa caTasa“, romelic kacTagan dauxmareblad ,,daemyara“ Tavis saZirkvelze. ami­tom ewoda pir­vel eklesias sveticxoveli, anu igive Zelicxoveli.

    didi wyalobaa nebismieri gvarisTvis, soflisTvis, roca ufali getyvis: ,,aRiRe jva­ri da Semomideg me“. ra unda yofiliyo imaze didi sixaruli Cveni winaprebisaTvis, Tu ara saq­ar­TveloSi RvTis sadideblad agebuli pirveli qristianuli taZrisadmi uan­garo msaxureba, sadac  saqristianos udidesi siwminde – uflisa Cvenisa iesos kvarTia da­va­­ne­buli? disevi da oqropiriZeebis gvari ,,ZuelTaganve rom hqonda sueticxovelsa“, ki­dev ramdenime samefo sigeliT dasturdeba. es STambeWdavi istoriaa da mofrTxileba unda!

    disevidan or kilometrSi, samxreT-dasavleTiT Rrma xevidan Camoedineba patara mdina­re korkula, romlis Tavzec XX saukuneSi gaaSenes sofeli korkula (zemo da qvemo) da Caa­saxles mTidan Camosuli osebi. os separatistTa azriT, korkula osuri sofelia, sinam­dvi­leSi ki misi morfologiuri analizi, goris universitetis profesoris, nino oqropiriZis TqmiT ,,saSualebas gvaZlevs masSi gamovyoT fuZe ,,kork“, hidronimis sawar­moqmno sufiqsi – ul  da  makninebeli sufiqsi – a“. am hidronimSi Semonaxulia rkos qarTuli Tavdapirveli fo­r­ma korko: korko – krko – rko. toponimSi Caqsovili es Tavda­pir­veli mniSvneloba am raionSi didi muxnaris arsebobas adasturebs.  aq amJamadac mravladaa SemorCenili muxis mravalsaukunovani koromebi. isev disev-kulbiTis teritoriaze amave periodSi osi axalmosaxleebisaTvis iqmneba sofeli xelCua. xelCua damaxinjebuli for­maa adgilis saxel-toponimis xelTSuisa, romelic mdebareobda or qarTul sofels – di­sevsa da qsuiss Sua. miuxedavad imisa, rom  saukuneze metia mimdi­na­reobs regionis toponimikuri aneqsia (2008 wlis okupaciis Semdeg mTlad xel-fexi gaexsnaT am mimarTulebiTac).

    disevis Sesaxeb arsebobs ramdenime თქმულება-გადმოცემა. erT-erTis mixedviT, როგორც ზემოთ აღინიშნა, es midamo erT qal­batons ekuTvnoda. im xanebSi qarTvelebs mniSvnelovani omi mougiaT. omSi Tavi usa­xe­lebia mis Zmas da das misTvis aqauroba uCuqebia. amitom am adgilisTvis diseuli, e.i. disgan naCuqari daur­qme­vi­aT. legendis sasargeblod metyvelebs patara mdinaris – diseu­ras saxelwodebac (diseuli – dise­uri), romelic Suaze hyofs sofels. folkloruli wya­ros erT-erTi versiiT xeobis am nawils daviT aRmaSeneblis da flobda. rodesac gvir­­gvi­nosanma mefem aq mcxovrebni ერთგულეbisTvis miwi­Ta da tyiT daasaCuqra, misma damac, Ta­vis wil, maT kuTvnili sofeli aCuqa. cnobilia, rom aseTi tipis legenda-Tqmulebebi xSir SemTxvevaSi istoriuli sinamdvilis gamiTiurebuli asaxvaa. aRniS­nuli legendebis Tavisebur poetur gaazrebas warmoadgens diseveli poe­tis, saxalxo mTqmelis zurab oqropiriZis leqsi ,,disevi saCuqaria“, romlis striqo­nebi Cven zemoT ukve movitaneT, (u. oO.) magram amave Tqmulebis anareklia mis vrcel leqsSi ,,kveri cxva“, რომლის მიხედვით ivanes gmiro­bi­saTvis daviT აღმაშენებელი da misi dai miwa-wyals Cuqnian:

                            ,,uboZa mTa da ivanes

    iqve daswera jvaria,

    mRvdladac akurTxa da misca

    oqropirisZe gvaria.

    iq rom mdinare Camodis

    mieci Cemeulada,

    Zmam aRiara dis Txovna

    maSinve iRo yurada.

    Cem sanadiro xeobas

    Tavs davanebeb srulada,

    gCuqnis Cemi da, ivane,

    miiRe diseulada.

         disevelTa savizito baraTia soflis aRmosavleTiT, tyis piras gadmomdinare yi­nu­­li­viT civi wamala, igive Tamaris wyaro. winaprebis gadmocemiT, Tamaris amalis  wevrebs cieb-cxeleba SehyriaT da am wyaroTi gankurnebulan. saxeli ,,wamala wyaro“ gvirgvi­no­san­ma mefem Sear­qvao. disevelebma ki mas didi mefis pativsacemad Tamaris wyaro uwodes. xal­xuri Tqmuleba imasac gadmoscems, rom kulbiTis RvTismSobeli (XIII s.) uSualod Tamaris miTiTebiT aigo da samudamo gansasvenebelic Tavisive daarsebuli wyaros midamoebSi hpo­vao. (am tipis Tqmulebebi saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela kuTxeSia gavrce­le­buli). Tama­ris wyaros samkurnalo Tvisebebi Cvens droSic araerTma adamianma gamoscada.

    sofel disevs Tavisi strategiuli mdebareobis gamo gansakuTrebuli datvirTva unda hqonoda saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. Sida qarTlis erT-erTi yvelaze maRali – orbo­Za­­lis qedis midamoebidan saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi qarTvelebs yovelTvis SeeZloT gaekon­trolebinaT es regioni.

    Tu zemoT motanil sigel-gujrebs, xalxur gadmocemebs sxva istoriul-litera­turul wya­roebsac mvaSvelebT, disevi qarTvel mefeTa arcTu iSviaTi maspinZeli unda yofiliyo, ris Sesaxebac istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT wers qarTuli mwerlobis didos­tati konstantine gamsa­xur­diac Tavis tet­ralogiaSi ,,daviT aRmaSenebeli“.

    ,,did TurqobiT“ ukiduresad Seviwroebuli, gana­xev­rebul-damcrobili, SeSinebuli, klde-Rreebs Sexiznuli qarTveloba umZimes mdgomareobaSia.  Mematiane gad­mog­vcems, rom mterTagan ,,mooxrebul iyo qarTli da Tvinier cixeTa sadme ara sada iyo kaci sofelsa Sina... wmindani eklesiani Seqmnes saxlad huneTa TvisTa, xolo sakur­Txe­veli RmrTisai adgilad arawmindebisa...“

    Ase kritikul momentSi udidesi stategiuli mniSvneloba hqonda Sida qarTls. Mas umniSvnelovanesi roლი unda Seesrulebina qveynis bedis gadawyvetaSi. amitom wminda mefem aqauri cixeebi gaamagra da Tavis erT-erT rezidenciad naWarmagevi aqcia. aqedan, ,,zena soflidan“, qarTlis gulidan unda dawyebuliyo saqarTvelos gaTa­vi­suflebisaTvis warmoebuli didi brZola. Tumca mematianes wvrilad ar Semounaxavs daviT aRmaSeneblis Sida qarT­lu­ri cxovrebis deta­lebi, magram eWvs gareSea, igi, albaT, Tavad Semoivlida Sida qarTlis xeobebs, nugeSs scemda darbeul, mTaSi gaxiznul xalxs da safiqrebelia, rom qarTvelTa udidesi mefe uTuod yuradRebas miaqcevda momavali ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolebisaTvis Sida qarTlSi metad mniSvnelovani strategiuli  mdgomareobis mqone disev-kulbiTis xeobas.

    arsebobs mosazreba, rom, disevis mTianeTi daviT mefis cxenosani jaris sawvrT­nel-mosamzadebeli baza iyo da albaT, isic araerTxel ewveoda disevsa da mis mimdebare te­ri­toriebs. naWarmagevidan disevamde xom sul raRac 25 kilometria. JamTaaRmwereli, bunebrivia, yvelafers ver aRwerda, magram unda vifiqroT, rom gaqceul-gaxiznuli mosaxleoba, davi aRmaSeneblis energiuli qmedebebiTa da gamarjvebebiT gulmocemuli nel-nela ubrun­deboda sakuTar ezo-kars. gadavixedoT aTaswleulis miRma da im gana­wa­me­bi, Cveni devnili winaprebis sixaruli da gancda warmovidginoT; devnilo­bidan wlebis Semdeg, rogor ubrundebian  TavianT sacxovriss, mtrisagan ganadgurebuls da gaveranebuls Samb-ekal-bard gadavlils. ueWvelia, me­fe aRmaSenebeli Tavis xalxs ყველანაირად daexmareboda, saku­Tar miwaze mo­brunebulT meurneobis ganaxleba-moSenebaSi, dangreul-damwvari saxlebisa da cixe-taZ­rebis aRdgena-SekeTebisaTvis. aucileblad SearCevda orbisTvala da mglismuxla di­sevel va­J­kacebs samefo jari­sTvis,  gamoscdida, gawvrTnida, gamar­jvebis geSs aaRebinebda liax­v­elT და  momavalSi yvelaze didi bagratovani მის mier warmoebuli saxelovani omebis Tana­mona­wi­le­დ, თავიანთი სამშობლოს, ქართული ეკლესიისა da qვეყნის Rirseul msaxurებად აქცევდა.

      

          sof. cixisZirSi wmmRvdelmTavar                   tyemakaravi

           aleqsandres mSenebare eklesia

                    roca gaviazrebT am istorias, cxadi gaxdeba disevis Sesaxeb arsebuli legendis si­nam­dvile: wminda mefe uflisa da samSoblosadmi erTgulebis gamo gamoarCevs ,,keTil­gva­rovan oqro­piriZeebs“ da uwyalobebs sofel disevs sakmaod vrceli teritoriebiT. aseTi ram SemTxve­viT ar xdeba, mas Tavisi winapirobebi aqvs...

    istorikos sexnia CxeiZis cnobiT, XVIII s-is 30-ian wlebSi iranis jarma sefi-xanis sardlobiT aaoxra qsnis saerisTavo, daarbia patara liaxvis soflebi, maT Soris disev-kulbiTis xeoba. 1739 wels ukve aslamaz-xani aoxrebs ikorTis, vanaTisa da kulbiTis cixeebs. ამ პერიოდში Sida qarTli­s­Tvis mouSorebel Wirad iqca lekTa TareSi. isini sxvadasxva gadmosasvle­le­bidan Tavs esxmian soflebs, itaceben, xocaven mosaxleobas. amave saukunis meore naxe­var­Si osuri agresia arafriT Camouvardeboda daRestnelTa TareSs.

    am sastiki Jamis amsaxvelia soflis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebare adgili-toponimi ,,guT­niylapia“. mindorSi samuSaod gasuli xalxi Tavisi guTneuliT ukvalod გამქრალა. ga­u­Ci­na­rebuli oqropiriZeebi SemTxveviT gadarCenilan da dRes maTi STamomavlebi TeT­ri wya­ros rai­onis sofel kldeisSi და საქართველოს სხვა რეგიონებშიც cxovroben.

    savaraudod, amave mizeziT Cndebian oqropiri­Zeebi samxreT-dasavleT saq­ar­Tve­loSi – კერძოდ, ქობულეთის რაიონში. sxvadasxva dros oqropiriZeebis nawili mizezTa gamo gadasaxlda duSeTisa da mcxeTis raionebSi, gorSi da mis mimdebare soflebSi, TbilisSi, rusTavSi, kaxeTSi (oqro­piri­Zeebis kaxeTis mxaris warmomadgenelia marjaniSvilis Teatris cnobi­li msaxiobi roland oqro­piriZe), samcxeSi (mcire raodenobiT). აქაურთა გადმოცემით სამცხეში მომხდარ ოქროპირიძეებს გვარი ოქრომელიძე მიუღიათ. ახალციხის რაიონში სოფელ მუსხში მცხოვრები ოთარ პორფილეს ძე ოქრომელიძე მოგვითხრობს, რომ „დაახლოებით 250 წლის წინ მესხურ

     

    kintriSis xeoba, tyemakaravi.  disevidan wasul oqropiriZeTa pirvelsacxovrisi

       

    ნა­ს­ო­ფლარზე ჩემი წინაპარი, გორელი ოქროპირიძე დასხლდა. ახალციხის ფაშას 3 ძმა ეახლა, სადმე დაგვასახლეო. ფაშა ქართველი იყო, ჯაყელი და იქნებ გულითაც უნდოდა დაცარიელებული მუსხის აღდგენა, ამიტომ ერთ-ერთი ძმა მუსხის ნასოფლარში დაასახლა... და გვარი ოქრომელიძედ გადაიკეთა... მეორე ძმას ფაშამ არტაანში... უბოძა საუკეთესო ადგილები, - ახლანდელი დეგირმანქევში (წისქვილის სოფელს ნიშნავს), საიდანაც ახლახან გვესტუმრნენ მისი შთამომავლები - ჩვენი სისხლი და ხორცი უნდა გავიცნოთო...“ (გაზ. „კვირის პალიტრა“, №50, 2014) . მონათხრობი ოქრომელიძეთა წინაპრების სამცხეში მოხვედრის შესახებ, დროში საინტერესოდ ემთხვევა ქობულეთელ ოქროპირიძეებში შემორჩენილ მათი აქ გადმოსახლების პერიოდს და ძიების გაგრძელების შემთხვევაში შეიძლება სხვა საინტერესო პარალელებიც მოიძებნოს, ან კიდევ პირიქით.

    qveynis sxva regionebSi mosaxle oqropiriZeebma winaparTa gadmocemidan ician, rom warmoSobiT maTi mama-papa ქართლიდან, კერძოდ კი disevidan iyo.

    biwmendi-saguramos mxaris oqropiriZeebSi aris versia, rom maTi winapari aq ilia Wa­v­WavaZis TaosnobiT dasaxlebula. ეს ცნობა მცხეთელი ოქრო ოქროპირიძისათვის მიუწოდებია საქართველოში ცნობილ მხატვარსა და მულტიპლიკატორს ნელი ოქროპირიძეს. wminda ilia marTlisa da wminda mRvdel­mTa­var aleqsandre episkoposis urTierTobebs Tu gaviTva­lis­­winebT, am versias ver gamov­ricxavT. oqropiriZeebis arcTu mcire raodenoba cxovrobs duSeT­sa da mis mimdebare soflebSi. eb­niseli oqropiriZeebi mama-papaTa გადმოცემის მიხედვით მათი wina­pari disevi­dan yofila.

    aRsaniSnavia oqropiriZeebis sasuliero dinastiis gagrZelebis magaliTi du­SeTSi. 1919 wlis 17 ivniss duSeTis mazris II olqis samRvdeloebis saeparqio krebas, sxva­Ta So­ris, daswrebian adgilobrivi mRvdeli  nikoloz oqropiriZe da medaviTne zaqaria oqro­piriZe. (,,sapatriarqos uwyebani“, #13, 2012). oqropiriZeebis Rirseuli warmomadgeneli iyo du­SeTSi dabadebuli da gazrdili cnobili sportsmeni, sabWoTa kavSiris nakrebis wevri, msof­liosa  Tu araerTi saerTa­So­riso turniris Cempioni Widaoba  samboSi, akaki oqro­pi­ri­Ze, romelic, samwuxarod, avtokatas­trofaSi daiRupa.

    isto­ri­­u­li beduku­RmarTobis wyalobiT gadaxvewili oqropiriZeebi sakmao raode­nobiT cxo­v­ro­ben TurqeTSic. cnobilia, rom 1949-52 wlebSi TurqeTis premier-ministri qobu­leTidan muhajirad wasuli oqropiriZis STamomavali iyo. TurqeTSi mcxovrebi meTin oqropiri­Zis cnobiT, misi winaprebi daaxloebiT XIX saukunis dasawyisSi gadasulan qo­bu­leTidan TurqeTSi. es procesi ufro intensiuri gaxda muhajirobis pe­rio­d­Si.

    sainteresoa qobuleTSi oqropiriZeebis dasaxlebis istoria. disevis Semdeg maTi pirvel­sacxovrisi aq kintriSis xeoba iyo. axalmosaxleebs karavi gaumarTavT tyemlebis gve­r­diT (aqedan mo­dis soflis saxelwodebac – tyemalkaravi, SemdegSi tyemakaravi). gvaris qobuleTeli uxucesebi (suliko, ramiz, dursun oqropiriZeebi) adastureben winaparTa gadmocemebs, rom isini warmo­SobiT Sida qarTlidan, kerZod disevidan arian.

    Turqi istorikosis nebi gumuSis mier mowode­buli cnobis mixedviT 1835 wels tye­ma­karavSi yo­fila 102 komli daaxloebiT 660 mcxovrebiT, (Nebi Gumus, Acara tarihi...) al. frenkelis 1878 wlis monacemebiT, misi mo­saxleoba 50 komliT da 211 mcxovrebiT ganisazRvreboda. [26] 1923 wlis qobuleTis sof­lebSi Catarebuli mekomurTa aRweris mixedviT ki, sofel tyemaka­ravSi saxlobda oqropi­riZeTa 17 ojaxi 92 mcxovrebiT, qaquTSi – 6 ojaxi 45 mcxovrebiT, nacxava­tevSi – 4 ojaxi 26 mcxovrebiT, koxSi – 2 ojaxi 13 mcxovrebiT, skuraSi – 4 ojaxi 28 mcxovrebiT, al­am­ba­r­Si – 3 ojaxi 16 mcxovrebiT, kamarovkaSi – 1 ojaxi 2 mcxovrebiT da leRvaSi – 1 ojaxi (acsa,f. r-237, 1923)  e.i. 1923 wlisTvis qobuleTis raionis mxolod 9 sofelSi (monacemebi arasrulia ­– avt.) cxovrobda daaxloebiT 40-mde ojaxi 240-mde suliT.

    Cans, tyemakaravidan oqropiriZeebi maxlobel soflebSi: gogmaCaurSi, nacxavatev­Si, nabadasa da qaquTSi gadasaxldnen. amJamad qobuleTsa da mis mimdebare soflebSi, baTum­Si aRniSnuli gvaris 300-ze meti ojaxi cxovrobs.

    dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi daaxloebiT 3500-mde oqropiriZe unda cxovrobdes. 1997 wlis monacemebiT sul saqarTveloSi cxovrobda 3269 oqropiriZe, aqedan gorsa da go­ris raionSi – 1008, qo­buleTSi – 818, TbilisSi – 743 da danarCeni saqar­Tvelos sxva adgi­leb­Si  (silagaZe ap., ToTaZe anz., 1997)

    gazeT ,,aWaris“ Jurnalisti, nugzar oqropiriZe igonebs misi babuis, murad oqro­pi­riZis naambobs: ,,oqropiriZeebi qarTlidan movediT, Cvens winaprebs elias cixis CrdiloeTiT, tyemlis ZirSi daudgamT karavi da iq dasaxlebulan, ris gamoc am sofels tyemalkaravi daerqva“. murad oqropiriZe imasac ambobs, rom qaquTis TemSi pirveli marani aaSena da pirveli Rvinoc TviTon daayena. mis samosaxloze 1961 wels aRmoCenila qvevri Rvinis narCeniT.

    cnobili moRvawis, zaqaria WiWinaZis cnobiT, qaquTi erTaderTi dasaxlebuli pun­qtia, sadac ucxotomelebma jamis (meCeTis) ageba ver moaxerxeso.

     oqropiriZeTa qobuleTis Sto ramdenime gvarad gayofila: oqropiriZeebi, marTa­li­­Svilebi, devriSaZeebi, gamarjobaZeebi. gvaris gayofa, uxucesTa gadmocemiT XIX s-is II naxevarSi momxdara. Cven erTi fesvidan movdivarT da Cvens Soris qorwineba dauSve­be­li­ao – amboben qobu­le­Teli oqropiriZeebi. dRes oqropiriZeebi qaquTis Temis soflebis garda cxovroben kintriSis xeobis soflebSi – WaxaTSi, koxSi, sof. qobuleTSi, xucubanSi, samebaSi, agreTve zeniTSi, alam­barSi, mu­xa­estateSi, leRvaSi, cixisZirSi, kondidSi, gvaraSi da sxva, (uCa oqropiriZe, ,,oqro­piriZeTa gvaris warmoSobis istoriidan“), agreTve qalaq qobuleTsa da baTumSi.

    disevma Tavisi golgoTa gaiara, mZime jvari zida. misi yoveli nangrevidan Soreuli warsuli, daferflili istoria gadmogvcqeris. am patara sofelSi erTi Ziridan momdi­nare oqropiriaanT ramdenime ganStoebaa, (disevis SemTxvevaSi es sityva ufro pirobiTia), esenia: maxarebliaani, qaqucaani, gabrielaani, mRvdliaani, zurabiaani, kikiaani, mWed­lia­a­ni da epitaani. oqropiriZeTa gvaris Rirseul SvilTa moRvaweobis Seswavlas mkvlevarTa yuradReba ar aklia, magram sainteresod iazrebs oqropiriZeTa sagvareulos calkeul ga­nayofTa Seqmnis istorias marTlac oqropiri poeti zurab oqropiriZe. leqsis mixed­viT, ioane mRvdlis Svils esaias eqvsi vaJi hyolia, romelTac saTave daudes TiToeul Stos:

    ,,esaia didi papa

    ivane mRvdlis iyo Svili,

    swored imas SeeZina

    Semdeg eqvsi vaJiSvili.

    gabrieli da maxara,

    epita da erqva kiko,

    tanmaRali zuras Semdeg

    qaquca sul bolo iyo...“

         

    Tavisi siyvaruli da mowiweba gamoxata disevis mimarT cnobilma poetma da saeklesio moRvawem, TianeTisa da fSav-xevsureTis mitropolitma Tadeozma leqsSi ,,oqropiriZeTa samosaxlo“:

    ,,mTebi da mTebi dahyurebs sofels,

    me venacvale am xalxs,

    yvela stumrisTvis keTilismyofels,

    madli rom blomad axlavs.

    maxarobeli da wmindawyaro,

    wamalad monaTluli,

    iqve muxaa bednierebis,

    rom gagvixaros guli...

    aq oqropirebs audgamT ena,

    gmirTa kurTxeul keras,

    eTamaSeba mzis sxivi lxenad

    wyaros, kamkama Cqerals.

    maRliT arwivma Sehkra irao,

    ufro metia iq mze...

    netav mamRera, ar matirao

    momaval dReTa fiqrze.

    ZmobiT da trfobiT, SvilTa mravlobiT

    amaRldebodes Weri.

    madlis SegrZnebiT, svekeTilobiT

    moyvrad qceodes mteri.

    qarTvels Zvelebur uWrides mklavi

    xedvaarwivis Tvali,

    gamobrwyindeba bedis varskvlavi

    Sors rom cimcimebs mkrTali.

    ...xedva, sifxizle, fiqri da zrunva

    saqmiT da ara eniT,

    urTules JamSi gadarCenis mze

    gamoanaTebs rwmeniT.

    ar moklebodes Sens Svils silaRe,

    rogorc liaxvis zvirTebs,

    qarTveli deda sulis simaRled

    kvlav gmirTagmirebs zrdides...

    isev mTebo da isev velebo,

    mziTa da mTvariTbadriT,

    Tqven gagimarjoT, disevelebo,

    Tqveni RvTiuri madliT“.

                 disevis siwmindeebs naziarebi mRvdelmTavari locvisken, sifxizlisken mouwo­debs oqropiriZeebs, raTa ,,urTules JamSi gadarCenis mzem gamoanaTos rwmeniT...“

    rwmeniT da maRali zneobiT ganaTebuli suliT sjabnida aTaswleulebis ganmav­lo­baSi qarTveli im uamrav cnobierebaSezRudul mosisxars, romelTac yovel meore dRes aviwydebodaT  warsulis mZime gakveTilebi da isev imas waetanebodnen wasaglejad, rac ar­as­dros SerCeniaT. magram roca isev gauWirdebaT, kvlav saqarTvelosken izamen pirs da isev „yovlismimtevebel“ qarTvelTan gadairCenen Tavs. Tqven ალბათ ikiTxavT: ki magram, ratom vpatiobT qarTvelebi yovelTvis yvelafers am aTasgzis moRalateebsa da umadurebs?!

    simarTle ki ubralo da iseTive primitiulia, rogorc es Cveni maradiuli ,,Tanamgzavrebi”: – Cven Zalian kargad viciT, rom maT dRes, jer-jerobiT sxva arafris SemoTavazeba ar SeuZliaT CvenTan saurTierTobod Tavis dasafiqsireblad..., ­­– umaduri, urwmuno, RvTis garegani sibari­te­bi  arian da imitom!.. (ZiriTadad postsabWour-prokomunisturi nomenklatura  da misi sakuTari erisTvisve saziano, gamyidveluri politikis mZevlebad   darCena igulisxmeba. - amas sul male mixvdeba es xalxic – u. o.)

    ase rom ar iyos, vaxtang gorgaslis, daviT aRmaSeneblis, Tamar mefis da giorgi brwyinvalesagan miRebuli qrestomaTiuli gakveTilebis Semdeg, ase moqcevis uflebas aRar unda aZlevdnen Tavs!. magram ra qnan?! maT mxolod batoni gamoicvales da axal batonsac xom unda daumtkicon ZaRluri erTguleba? Torem ra problema Seuqmna maT odesme qarTulma saxemwifoeb­rio­bam da qarTvelma xalxma, romlisganac sikeTis garda araferi miuRiaT! CrdiloeT, e. i. namdvil oseTSi ki, maT gadaSenebas, sul cota xnis winaT, aRaraferi aklda...

     magram, rogorc Cans, Cveni misiaa, RmerTs gadavurCinoT es azrgamoclili parazi­te­bi,  raTa, roca saWirod dainaxavs, gai­gos, rom maTze  isev qarTvelebis saSualebiT sulis STaberviT da maTive erovnuli sulis aRorZinebiT, SeiZleba Tu ara, miiRos raime gonieri...

    ase, rom magaT gamo RmerTic ki eWvebSia, – SesZlebs Tu ara maT xsnas da gons moyva­nas... – Cven ki sakuTari misiis SegnebiT, arasdros  ar unda CavideT iq, sadac isini, sxvaTa dakrulze mocekvaveni, atareben TavianT ZaRlumadur cxovrebas.

    aseTia, rogorc Cans, saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebis sulieri misia!!!

    G

     

    gamoyenebuli literatura da wyaroebi

     

    leonti mroveli,  q. c. 1955:  leonti mroveli, cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTasa da pirvelTaganTa mamaTa da naTesavTa, q. c., t. I, Tb., 1955, gv. 10;

    juanSeri, q. c. 1955: cxovreba vaxtang gorgasalisa, ,,qarTlis cxovreba“, t. I, 1955, gv. 241-242;

    janaSia s., 1952: janaSia s., Sromebi, II, 1952, gv. 283-284;

    Jordania T., 1897; 1020 wlis sigeli melqisedek kaTalikosisa, Jordania T., qronikebi, w., II, tfilisi, 1897, gv. 33, 35-36; igive sigelis Sesaxeb, ,,matiane qarTlisai“, ucnobi avtori, ,,qarTlis cxovreba“, w. I, Tb.,1955, gv. 295;

     გაზ. „კვირის პალიტრა“, 2014: 16 წელი სიკვდილის ბანაკებში..., გაზ. „კვირის პალიტრა“, №50,(1062), 8-14 დეკემბერი, 2014, გვ. 16;

    საპატრიარქოს უწყებანი, 2012: ,,sapatriarqos uwyebani“, #13, 2012;

    Nebi Gumus:  Nebi Gumus, Acara tarihi ischin yeni bir Kayanak: Osmanli devletinde yapilan…gv. 3;

    აცსა, 1923: - acsa, f. r-237, anaweri #1, saqme #1 (1923 wlis monacemebi qobuleTis soflebSi Catarebuli mekomurTa aRwerisa);

    სილაგაძე ავ, თოთაძე ანზ., 1977: - silagaZe av., ToTaZe anz., gvar-saxelebi saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1977, gv. 158;

     

          მასალა მომზადებულია 2012 წელს გამოცემული ბროშურის − sofel disevis mokle istoria” მიხედვით, რომელსაც საბოლოო რედაქტირება გაუკეთა უჩა ოქროპირიძემ

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

                      

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Tavi II _ qarTuli saqmis Tavdadebuli moamageni

     

    § 1. aleqsandre episkoposi (oqropiriZe)

     

    madlierma qarTvelma erma aleqsi oqropiriZes (aleqsandre episko­­poss) „aRma­Se­ne­be­li“ da „qarTvelTa mama“ uwoda. man es saxeli, rogorc zeciuri gamgebelis, ise sam­­Sob­los winaSe WeSmaritad daimsaxura.

    misi pirovnebis didebul saxelze metyvelebs farTo sazogadoebi­saT­vis ucno­bi ilia WavWavaZis sityva, romlis gamoqveynebiTac viwyebT aleqsand­re episkoposis cxovrebisa da Rvawlis „mcired“ aRweras.

    *     *     *

    ilia WavWavaZis sityva warmoTqmuli 1898 wlis 15 maiss yovlad usamRvdeloesis aleq­sandres moRvaweobis 50 wlis iubilesa da misi guria-samegrelos eprqiaSi gada­yva­nasTan dakavSirebiT.

    „Tqveno yovlad usamRvdeloesobav! me vbedav Tqvens winaSe xmis amoRebas dRe­van­del dRes ara imisaTvis, rom Tqven Cems qeba-didebas saWi­ro­ebT? Tqveni saqmeni, Tq­ve­ni Rvawl-mosili sicocxle Cemze ukeTesad hRaRa­debs Tqvens qebasa da didebasa da Cemi Tqma aras moumatebs Tqvens saTnoebiT mopovebuls saxelsa.

    „nametanobaSi nu CamomarTmevT da guliT wmidiT vityvi, rom sCans RmerTs ki­dev ar davviwyebivarT, radgan TqvenisTanaebsa saTnoebian kacs mou­v­lens xolme Cvens qveyanasa da raki TqvenisTanaebsa vxedavT, guls kvlav erTvis wuTi-soflisagan Rone mixdili sasoeba da wuTisoflisaganve gamqrali ime­di ukeTesis dReebisa. uRo­noba qveynisa marto ufuloba da uqonloba ki ar aris, rogorc exla bevrsa hgonia, ara­med ufro isa, roca saTnoebiTi, keTil-momqmedi, maRal zneobis kaci ar yavs. simagre qveynis, qveynis Zal-Rone, Sem­nax­veli da  gamadidebeli, qviT-kiri adamianis mar­to saTnoebaa da marto saTnoebiani kaci hqmnis am wuTisofels taZrad, sadac RmerTs adideben, da samoTxed, saca bedniereba adamianisa sadgurobs.

    „Tqvenis cxovrebis wmidaTa-wmidad ori didi sagania: erTi RmerTi da meore Tqveni samSoblo qveyana. RmerTs RmerTisas aZlevdiT, qveyanas qveynisas da orsav erTmaneTis dauklisad gulmxurvalebiT da siyvaruliT. erTi wuTic ar vici Tqvenis sicocxlisa, rom cxovelmyofeli Suqi am orkec siyvarulisa ar moqfenodes TviTeuls Tqvens saqmes, TviTeuls Tqvens moqmedebas. „qveyanas emsaxurebodiT RvTi­saTvis da RmerTs adidebdiT qveynisaTvis, radganac RmerTi aris siyvaruli da siy­va­­ru­li mxsnelia qveynisa“.

    Tqveni sicocxle mTeli da ganuwyveteli saTnoebaa, saTnoeba, romlis maga­liTs marto im madliT cxebuls mRvdel-monazvnebis Soris vpoulobT, romelnic erT dros yofilan CvenSi Cvenda sabednierod da exla aRar arian. Tqveni xorci daumorCileT sulsa da erTi udidesi saTnoebac es aris. gSioda da ar sWamdiT, gwyurodaT da ar svamdiT, gciodaT da ar TbebodiT imisaTvis ki ara, rom viTarca angaar­ma da Zunwma Tqvenis TavisaTvis  oqro moixveWoT, aramed imisaTvis, rom  rac mosax­marad Tqvenis TavisaTvis ar ge­mete­bodaT, rasac Tqvens Tavs aklebdiT, is sxvas SehmatoT, samadlod saqveynoT ­gasceT, Tqvens samSoblos moaxmaroT. marTali uT­qvams, vinc sTqva, rom ornairi saTnoebaa qveyanaze adamianis Rirsebis aRmniSvneli. erTi uqmi, romelsac mosdevs ara qmna borotisa, meore momqmedi, romelsac mosdevs qmna keTilisa. pirveli magdeni veraferi Rvawlia, sadidebeli kacisa, meore saTnoebaa da amisTana saTnoebis patroni Tqvena brZandebiT“.

    „Tqven aRgvidgineT Cvenni daviwyebuli wmindani Sio mRvimeli da ioanne zedazneli, sxvam rac unda sTqvas da Cemis fiqriT ki kaci is aris, visac guliTadi rwmena risame aqvs qveynis sakeTildReod mis mier aRiarebuli da im rwmenas emsaxureba Tav-dadebiT. Tqven gwamT, rom adamianis mxsneli, misi xelT-mZRvaneli da ganwmendili misi sjuli da sarwmunoebaa da am gzaze Rvawl-mosilebisaTvis ara dagizogavT ra. amisda mowmed Tqven mier aRdgenili monastrebia, es neSTi CvenTvis sulierad ze-aRsavlobisa. aq metia TviTeulis Tqvenis Rvawlis CamoTvla da marto amas vityvi, rom Tqveni madliT cxebuli marjvena yvelgan migiwvdeniaT, saca ki Tqvenis qveynis, Tqvenis eris sakeTildReod saqme ram aCenila. ar aris arcerTi saerTo saqvelmoqmedo saqme qarTvelobisa, rom Tqveni uxvi wvlili ar erios, Tqveni locva-kurTxeva win ar uZRodes, Tavs ar dastrialebdes“.

    martod isic sakmarisia Tqvenis madlobiT xsenebisaTvis, rom Tqvenis meoxebiT, Tqvenis RvawliT, Tqvenis mamobrul siyvaruliT gauzardeT Cvens qveyanas imisTana Svili, rogoric axlad nakurTxi episkopozi leonidea. Cven kacebiT Raribni varT da CvenTvis Tqvengan gazrdili, Tqvenis magaliTiT gawurTvnili, Tqve­nis sulisa da gulis Tanamoziare ganZia, saunjea, Cven SevxariT Cvens axals episko­pozs sasoebiT da imediTa, imitom rom Tqveni gazrdilia, Tqveni sulieri Svilia da yo­ve­li mzgavsi mzgavs hSobso, naTqvamia“.

    „Tqvens gazrdils didi da ekliani gza uZevs win, is siyvaruls qveynisas Tqven­sebr win  waimoZRvrebs da msaxureba misi, msaxureba iqmneba qveynisa. es gza, gzaa sakuTari Tavis gawirvisa, wamebisa, nametnavad CvenSi, saca umaduroba da kilva ise xSiria, rogorc arsad. Cven imedi gvaqvs, rom Tqveni gazrdili, Tqveni gawurTv­ni­li ara ekals ar SeuSindeba da Tqvens magivrobas gagviwevs. magivrobas meTqi!.. momi­te­veT, guli kacisa xarbia: Cven meti gvenatreba, nu Tu Tqven TiTon ar ine­bebdiT, rom Tqvenis gazrdilisagan meti moviTxovoT, meti movilodinoT. Tqven mama xarT da eg Tqveni Svilia, da radganac is urCevnia mamulsa, rom Svili sjob­des mamasa, Cven darwmunebuli varT, rom Tqven Cvenze ufro metis natvriT inatrebT, rom Tqveni gazrdili Tqven dagemjobnoT jer RvTiTa da mere Tqvenisave kurTxeviT. amisi, am Cvenis kadnierebis rwmenis qeds ixris yovelive sxva piradi grZnoba patios­nis kacisa.

    Cveno marTlada sayvarelo Rirs saxsovaro mRvdelmTavaro! Tqven aqedam mibrZandebiT, magram RvTis madliT, Cvenis qveynidam ki ara. iqac Cveni qveyanaa, Cveni eria, Cveni Zmebi arian. Cven aq geaxeliT, rom gza mSvidobisa mogaxsenoT da Tqvens winaSe RmerTs vTxovoT Tqveni dRegrZeloba da Tqvengan locva kurTxeva miviRoT. mogvirTmevia mcireodeni ZRveni ese Cvenda saxsovrad ki ara. Cven uamisodac gexso­mebiT mTel saqarTvelosTan erTad, radganac Svilni varT saqarTvelosi, romelsac  dReTa TqvenTa swiravT erTgulebiTa da siyvaruliTa. miiReT niSnad Cvenis guliTa­dis madlobisa da uRrmesi pativiscemisa da gixaroden, rom Senis qveynis Svilni moiwifen imodenad, rom SeZlebisamebr madlobas uxdian madlobis Rirs kacsa. gi­xaroden, imitom, rom esec erTi fexis win wadgmaa, erTis safexuriT ze-aRsvla Tqve­nis Svilebisa, radganac marto brmam da ukeTurma ar icis sxvis sikeTis danaxva, sxvis Rvawlis dafaseba.

    Tqven mibrZandebiT Cvengan da vwuxvarT, rom Cven gvSordebiT, magram CvenTa ZamTa siyvaruli anelebs Cvens mwuxarebas da gvamxnevebs Cven. Cvengan metis-meti gul-Zviroba iqmneboda, rom es ase ar iyos. Cven vwuxvarT Tqveni wasvliT da gvi­xa­rian Tqveni  aq mosvla, Cven gvakldebiT da, RvTis madliT, iq SeematebiT. yvel­gan Cvens qveyanaSi saWiroa imisTana kaci, romlis mixedviT da magaliTiT iwurTneba xa­sia­­Ti, iwmindeba goneba da guli adamianisa. uxarodeT maT, saca Tqven midixarT da Cven es ar gvSurs, radganac iqac Cvenebi arian. Tund esec ar iyos, Tqveni cxovreba saT­noebis skolaa CvenTvis da amitomac marto erTi  xsenebac Tqvenis saxelisa Cveni mwvrTnelia. oh, ra bednieria igi kaci, romelic gvwrTnis da gvaswavlis Cven aramc Tu CvenTan yofniT, aramed marto Tvisis saxelis xsenebiTacao, ambobs natvriT erTi Zveli berZeni. amisTana bednieri xarT Tqven. iyveniT kvlavac ese bednier Cvenda Tavs mosawoneblad da nu moakleb Tqvens locva-kurTxevas, Tqvens Rvawls Tqvens sayva­rel ersa, Tqvens  siyvaruls qveyanasa. sac ginda brZanebodeT, aRiRe kverTxi ese da wa­­ri­yvane eri Seni gzasa simarTlisa da sarwmunoebisa.

    dagvloce da Senis madliani xeliT gvakurTxe Senni madlobelni da Sen mier Rvawl-debulni“.

    *     *      *

    „... saTnoebianma, keTil moqmedma, maRal zneobis“ adamianma, romelsac Tavisi cxo­v­re­bis wmidaTa-wmidad ori didi sagani: erTi RmerTi da meore sakuTari samSoblo hqonda warmodgenili, mcxovanebisagan da ufro metad qveynis siavisagan mouZlurebulma „gandegilma“ (ilia) aleqsandrem, 1907 wels mTawmindaze, ukanask­ne­lad daloca da Tavisi madliani xeliT akurTxa „mis mier madldebuli maradiuli Rvawldebuli“, saqarTvelos ugvirgvino mefe. mamulisaTvis maradiuli lampari, qarTveli xalxisaTvis sworupovari mociquli da RvTiuri qadagi, – ilia WavWavaZe. es iyo aleqsandre episkoposis ukanaskneli gamoCena, misi ukanaskneli sityva, da ukanaskneli amboric didi ilias gangmirul gulze („aleqsandre aRmaSenebelma“ ori Tvis Semdeg, Tavis maradiul navTsayudelSi, – Sio mRvimis monasterSi, wminda Sios Zvlebis gverdiT, daivana da zeciur saqarTvelos SeuerTda misi ukvdavi suli.

    *     *     *

    saqarTvelos, qarTuli eklesiis istoriis erT-erT Znelbedobis Jams, qarTlis patara soflis, disevSi mcxovrebi mRvdlis – daviTis ojaxSi 1822 wels moevlina adamiani, ro­mel­mac, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saqarTvelos imdroindel yofas, TiTqmis daujerebeli ram SesZlo Tavisi mSobliuri eris sakeTildReod.

    albaT imedis TvaliT Sehyurebdnen jer mSoblebi da Semdeg goris sasuliero skolisa da Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis qarTveli aRmzrdelebi niWiersa da muyaiT aleqsi oqropiriZes da aki gaamarTla kidec. „netareba im dedas, im qarTvel mandilosans, im RvTisnier adamians, romelmac pawia aleqsis awova Tvisni ZuZuni da tkbil rZesTan erTad Caunerga mas gulSi uRrmesi siyvaruli RvTis da moyvasisadmi (ioane boboxiZe, 39. z.WiWinaZis „sityvebi da werilebi yovlad samRvdelo aleqsand­re­ze“, Tb., 1908 w. gv. 7-68).

    1845 weli aleqsi oqropiriZis ara marto seminariis damTavrebis TariRia, ara­med misi saxelovani  moRvaweobis dasawyisicaa. misi cxovrebis feriscvaleba iwyeba Tbilisis „feris-cvalebis“ eklesiaSi berad aRkveciT, mTavar-diakvnad kurTxeviT da, erTi wlis Semdeg yazanis sasuliero akademiaSi wasvliT.

    akademiaSi (1846-1850) igi eufleba filosofias, RvTismetyvelebas, fizika-maTe­ma­tikas, saeklesio da sazogadoebriv istorias, berZnuls, laTinurs, germanuls, Tur­­qulsa da arabul enebs (aqve xeldasxmul iqna mRvdel-monazonad da RvTismety­ve­lebis kandidatis xarisxiT gamoag­zavnes mSobliur saqarTveloSi).

    Semdeg pedagogoba, – saRmTo werili da laTinuri ena, zneobrivi RvTismety­ve­le­ba da arqeologia Tbilisis seminariaSi (1851), afxazeTis sasuliero saswav­­leb­lis inspeqtoroba (1851-1854), misi pirveli iniciativa afxazTaTvis skolis Seqmni­saT­vis iloris saswavlebelSi. misi pirveli gamoCena sarbielze da pirveli „Cin-med­lebi“.

    samxedro garemoebaTa gamo afxazTa sasuliero saswavlebeli gauqmda da 1854 wli­dan kvlav quTaisSia sasuliero saswavleblis zedamxedvelad da ufros ganyofilebaTa maswavleblad 1855 wlis 3 martamde. Semdeg iniSneba gelaTis pirvel­xa­­ris­xovan monastris winamZRvarad da eniWeba afxazeTis saeklesio kaTedris iRu­me­no­ba.

    1856 wels uwmindesi sinodis brZanebiT aleqsandre xeldasmuli iqna afxazeTis arqi­mandritad, xolo 1862 wels – episkoposad.

    1869 wlidan aleqsandre qarTl-kaxeTis eparqiis qorespiskoposia. orgzis (1869-1882, 1886-1898) yovlad-samRvdelo aleqsandre 25 weli goris episkoposi da qarTl-kaxeTis eparqiis pirvel qorepiskoposia. SualedSi – 1882-1885 wlebSi marTavda guriis eparqias, xolo 1898 wlidan 1903 wlamde guria-samegrelos eparqias.

    1903 wels yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre, Sinauri mtrbis wyalobiT, ganTavisufle­buli iqna eparqiis marTva-gamgeobisagan da siberis Jams uyuradRe­bod mitovebuli da uimedobaSi Cavardnili, „ganerida cxovrebas“, – ganerida ilias mkv­lelTa msgavs ubiro xalxs da „Caiketa“ mis mier ganaxlebul Sio mRvimis monas­ter­Si, rogorc gandegili. Seqmnili politikuri situaciebis gamo igi TiTqos yvelam miatova, garda misi momvleli maqsime mRvdelisa (CigogiZe – avt.) (isic moukles veragulad da amiT sicocxlec mouswrafes). 1907 wlis 9 noembers aResrula da daikrZala iqve taZarSi.

    qarTvelma erma mwuxared daitira „aleqsandre aRmaSenebeli“. gulwrfelad gamoxates TavianTi wuxili imiTac, visac SesaZlebloba hqonda daswreboda mis dakrZalvas.

    „WeSmaritad samgloviaroa satirel-savalaloa, – swerda sofrom mgalobliSvi­li, –rom mogvaklda wminda kaci, wminda beri, umwikvlo da uangaro adamiani, sava­la­lod Cemda, piradad ver daveswar, Cemda damoukidebeli mizezTa gamo, meufe aleq­sandres dakrZalvis dros,  ver daveswar, rom ukanasknelad vmTxveviyav mis wminda Sublsa, mis brwyinvale da spetaks saxes, davkonebodi mis mkerds, sadac scemda guli mxolod da mxolod samSoblo eklesiis, samSoblo qveynis sakeTildReod da sadideblad. waiRo man es aRfrTovanebuli siyvaruli samSoblosi, SeuerTdeba igi im wminda gunds Cveni samSoblos madidebelTa, misTvis wamebulTa da maTTan erTad aRavlens „mTawmidiT sioniT“ wmida locvas RvTis mSoblisadmi dasacavad miss wil­xdomil qveynisa. netareba mis suls, rom warsdgeba pirnaTlad im didebulis gundis winaSe“.

    – „ganusvene, ufalo, monasa Sensa, saqarTvelos WeSmarits Svils da moRvawe bers, mRvimis didebuli lavris aRmaSenebels, Sens  sadideblad mas Sina samudamo krebulis damaarsebels da mis nivTierad uzrunvelmyofels, sakuTari safasiT ori­vesave taZris ganmaaxlebels da yovlis samkalTa aRmavsebels, winamZRvrisa da kre­bulisaTvis saxlebis amSenebels da lavris ganmadidebels venaxebiT, baRebiT, sax­navis miwebiT, wisqviliT, samuSao iaraRiT da saqonliT, yovlad usamRvdeloes aleq­sandres“ – gvauwyebs misi cxovrebis ukanaskneli furceli – saflavis warwera.

    savallebuloa yvela qarTvelma icodes, rom Sio mRvimis didebul monasterSi, wminda Sio  kapadokielis ZvlebTan erTad, ganisvenebs adamiani, – „is cxovel-myofeli varsklavi, romelic naxevar saukunis ganmavlobaSi ara Tu oden anaTebda, aramed yve­­lafers anaTlebda (korneli kekeliZe).

    *   *    *

    imis naTelsayofad, Tu ra pirobebSi uxdeboda cxovreba da moRvaweoba aleq­san­dre episkoposs, avRniSnavT rom me-19 saukunis Cveni bedkruli qveyana war­moa­d­genda ubadruk lands saqarTvelos Zveli didebisa, xolo misi samRvdeloeba, – naSTs uZvelesi avtokefalu­ri (damoukidebeli) eklesiisa.

    saqarTveloSi, – ruseTis imperiis erT-erT ganapira mxareSi, – mefis rusi­fika­to­ru­­li re­Jimis wyalobiT,  gadagvarebis gzaze damdgari iyo rogorc saero, ise saek­le­­sio cxov­reba. erT dros SaravandediT mosili qveyana gaZvaltyavebuli, gaZarc­vu­li da gaRatakebul provincias warmoadgenda.

    rusi mwerali a. griboedovi  paskeviCisadmi gagzavnil erT-erT werilSi miuTiTebda, rom qveynis aseTi mdgomareoba gamowveulia  ruseTis mxriv uweso, gaumarTlebeli mmarTvelobiTo. am mdgomareobas kidev ufro autanels xdida ro­gorc samoqalaqo, ise sasuliero dawesebulebebSi (maT Soris skolebSic) qarTuli enis ugulvebelyofa da mis nacvlad yvelgan rusuli enis danergva. aRarafers vityviT rus Cinovnikebze, romlebic ras ar akeTebdnen, rom qarTvel xalxs dae­viw­ye­biaT mSobliuri ena da erovnuli wes-Cveulebebi (f. maxaraZe, saqarTvelo mecxra­me­te saukuneSi, „puSkini saqarTveloSi“, Tb., 1938 w., gv. 5, 27).

    cxovrebis aseTma pirobebma TiTqmis gamousworebeli daRi daado sa­qar­Tvelos, qarTul eklesias da mis mrevls, – gadaagvara erovnuli sazo­gadoeba.

     saero samsaxuris msgavsad, monazonebis umetesobam zurgi Seaqcia, uRalata Tavis pirdapir saqmianobas. „dRes Tu monazonobis umravlesobas Seadgendnen usaqmod cxovrebis moyvareni, – Seaxsenebda kalistrate cincaZe qarTvel mrevls aleq­sandre episkoposis dasaflavebis dros, – winaT ase rodi iyo. winaT monoznoba da sazogado asparezzed moRvaweoba sinonimebi iyvnen. winaT qarTveli Tu stovebda dedas da mamas, debsa da Zmebs, saxl-kars da me­zo­blebs da midioda monaster uda­b­noSi, igi am SemTxvevaSi Tavis Tavis­Tvis rodi zrunavda, aramed Tavs swiravda mamuls, viwro fargldidan gamodioda farTo asparezzed samuSaod. xels uwyobda eris ganviTarebas, ganswavlas, gaTviTcnobierebas, gaZlierebas da ganfaqizebas; patronobda qvriv-obolT da glaxak-davrdomilT, imeds unergavda gulSi da nugeSsa scemda tvirT-mZimeTa da maSvralT. amxelda da SeaCvenebda ZlierTa qveyni­saTa, roca igini gadauxvevdnen WeSmaritebisa da simarTlis gzas. amisaTvis iyo, rom sanam ber-monazvnoba Tavis daniSnulebas emsaxureboda da movaleobas asrulebda, – saqarTveloc izrdeboda da hyvaoda, xolo roca ber-monazvnoba daeca, – saqarTve­loc daqucmacda, danawilda, daeca...“ (z. WiWinaZe, „sityvebi da werilebi...“ gv. 4-25).

    mecxramete saukunis  gaubedurebuli saqarTvelos kidev ufro akninebda  qveynad gamefebuli sicrue da orpiroba, – cruobdnen morwmunenic da urwmunod wo­de­bul­nic. mravali sicruiT icvamda anaforas, sicruiT midiodnen sakurTxevlis tra­pez­Tan, sicruiTa da angarebiT qadagebdnen...

    ai, aseT pirobebSi mouxda cxovreba da moRvaweoba aleqsandre episkoposs. sic­rue, mliqvneloba, Ralati, ciliswameba, qrTami, zemdgomi pirebisadmi monuri morCi­le­ba, – ai, ra eRobeboda win Cveni wamebuli samSoblos xmalamoRebul damcvels. da mi­si xmali iyo uzomo siyvaruli samSoblosadmi. igi ibrZoda droTa da JamTa viTa­re­bisagan gansacdelSi Cavardnili qveynisaTvis.

    aleqsandre, mSobliuri qveynis dacema-dakninebis mTavar mizezad, miiCnevda erov­nul swavla-ganaTlebis dacemas.

    aleqsandre episkoposi xSirad gaixsenebda istoriul warsuls... misi survili iyo Cvens eklesia-monastrebSi kvlav danTebuliyo swavla-aRzrdis iseTi lampari, rogoric iyo daviTisa da Tamaris epoqaSi. mTeli Cveni Zveli saeklesio istoria imas mowmobso, – ambobda igi, – rom imdroindeli eklesias amSvenebda ganaTlebuli, Tavisi qveynis istoriis mcodne, marTali da patiosani, Tavisi xalxisaTvis Tavdadebuli msaxurni.

    piradad TviTon, – aleqsandre episkoposi, – iyo swored aseTi moRvawe, – maRali znisa da adamianTa modgmis usazRvro mosiyvarule. mis spetak guls ver ekareboda qveyniuri „amaoTa amaoeba“, miwieri cxovrebis siamovneba. misi suli zeciur samyarodan esalbuneboda Tavis mTavar saficars – saqarTvelos.

    aleqsandre episkoposis sidiadiT aRWurvil zneobriv bunebas, mis dauokebel pirovnebas, axasiaTebda zomaze metad gadasuli pirdapirobac da gambedaobac. igi ar ufrTxoda didi rangis rogorc saero, ise sasuliero pirT mxilebas, maT orgu­lo­bas, or enovnebas, flidobas, unamasobas, usamarT­lobas.

    iv. kereseliZis dasaflavebaze warmoTqmul sityvaSi aleqsandre episkoposi pirdapir miuTiTebda: „sakvirvelia Cveni qarTvelebis saqme, CvenisTana axirebuli xalxi, ar vici Tu kidev iqneba sadme? – cocxals – mSiers vklavT da roca mokvdeba, maSin ki vglovobT. batonebo! droa gavaxiloT Tvalebi, SevignoT Cveni movaleoba, vuSveloT Cvens Tavs, Cvens ers saqme vukeToT, marto wera, beWdva da laparaki ar kmara... Cemo anton! (miubrunda anton furcelaZes) aq rom gamomWimixarT, saqme is ki ar aris da martod wera, wadiT aqedam, aqeT-iqiT mideqiT, modeqiT da qarTvelT SeZlebulebs daavaleT sawyali qarTveli  xalxis patronoba, mfarveloba da qoma­go­ba, Torem RmerTs geficebiT daviRupebiT, aRvigebiT;  ase batonebo, visac riT Se­gi­Z­liaT, imiT emsaxuroT Tqvens qveyanas; muxran batons daataneT Zala, rom gaxsnas Tavisi skivri da sawylebs uSvelos. RmerTma gacxonos Zmao ivane, – mimarTavs gan­svenebuls ivane kereseliZes, da saukuno sasufeveli dagimkvidros ufalman Rmer­T­man. Sen gazarde i. WavWavaZe, akaki, an. furcelaZe da mravali sxvani. „ciskaric“ Sen gamoeci pirvelad da sxva bevri saqmeebi akeTe“  (z. WiWinaZe, yoflad samRvdelo aleqsandre, Tb., 1903, gv. 4).)

    rogorc vxedavT, eris didi moWirnaxule, ar moerida arc saerTo  samglo­via­ro ganwyobas da arc saxelovan adamianebs, – „moyvares pirSi uZraxa“. ase moeqca erT SeZlebul micvalebulsac (levan meliqiSvils), roca WirisufalT mimarTa: „... gans­ve­nebuli  yovlisfriT sruli iyo,  mRvTisagan,  kacisagan dajildlebuli, iyo di­di SeZlebis patroni, didi qonebis, didi saxelic hqonda, misi ubedureba erTi is iyo, rom mas Tavis qveynis da eris winaSe ki mcired eWira Tvali. qarTvelT gaWir­vebas ar aqcevda yuradRebas. maS, vinatreb, rom RmerTma amas cxoneba daumkvidros, sasufeveli mRvTisa da sxva mis msgavs kacTa aSoros gulgriloba saqarTvelos da qarTveli eris winaSe“ (z. WiWinaZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 4).

    aleqsandres yvelaze metad sZulda yalbi, „ori ena“  adamiani. „kaci Tavis qvey­nis  da eris winaSe siyalbes ar unda emsaxurebodes, xarisxis miRebis gulisaT­vis, ori ena ar unda iyos“, – xSirad pirSi miuxlia karieris, Tanamdebobis moyvare sul­-wawymedil adamianebisaTvis.

    aleqsandre episkoposi poetebsac gahkravda  xolme kbils. man nikoloz bara­TaS­vilis gadmosvenebis dros ase mimarTa cxedars: `CvenSi poetebi bevrni yofilan, davswrebivar imaT dasaflavebazedac. grigol orbelianisa, aleqsandre WavWavaZeze da sxvani. magram amisTana  pativs, rogorc poets, ara. aq me Cemis TvaliT vnaxe, xalx­ma rom Seni naSTis winaSe Tavi moidrika da muxli moiyara. qalebs rom Tavzed edga Seni kubo da ise mihqondaT... aseTi ganusazRvreli siyvaruli, agre Tvalsa­Ci­nod, jer aravis rgebia wilad. Cveulebrivad poetebi damRerian siyvaruls da bu­nebas, Sen ki sagnad Senis poeziisa aRirCie eris mwuxareba, misi gulis tkivili“ (z. WiWinaZe, dasax. naSroma, gv. 6).

    aleqsandre episkoposis pirovnebaze leqsebic mravlad iwereboda. umRerodnen mis mamuliSvilobas, mis Sromasa da amags (momaqvs nawyvetebi z. WiWinaZis miTTebuli wignidan):

     

    „... da am mravalsa saqmeTa Soris

    martoka erTi ewevi Wapans,

    Tumca moxucdi, magram mamacad

    Sensa mamulsa Sen urwev akvans“

    Tbiliseli moqalaqe    daviT gabruaSvilisagan.

     

    „didaT dideba Tqvens moRvawebas,

    siwmindisagan zeciT cxebulo,

    ganmanaTlebulo qarTvel erisa,

    gangebisagan movlinebulo“.

    giorgi nanobaSvilisagan.

     

    „hoi sulmnaTo, gadmogvxede brwyinvale TvaliT,

    win gagviZexi, gza gvaswavle sarwmunoebis,

    xelSi ipyariT basri sityva da wminda jvari,

    gamoaRviZe didi iveri dRes cocxalmkvdari“.

                       durgal i. simonovisagan.

    didi  ilias gazeTis 1898 wlis #103 moTavsebul werilSi, romelic miZRvni­lia misi yovlad-usamRvdeloesis aleqsandres guria-samegrelos eparqiaSi gaday­va­nas­Tan dakavSirebiT, igi daxasiaTebulia, rogorc didi mamuliSvili, saTno adamia­ni, samSoblos uerTgulesi moZRvari, xalxis gulSi sinaTlisa da siyvarulis mTes­ve­li.

    metad niSandoblivia agreTve, Cveni didebuli istorikosisa da sazogado moR­va­wis zaqaria WiWinaZis sityva, romelic warmouTqvams mas foTSi. igi aleqsandre epis­­koposis daxasiaTebisas dasZens:

    „im dros, rodesac, qarTvelT warCinebulT umravlesoba Tavis yvavi­lo­van xa­nas mxolod Cvens daRupvis moqmedebaSi atarebs, rodesac maT erTi groSis  game­te­bac ki eZnelebodaT Cvenis daqveiTebulis tomis saqmeebTa sa­sar­geblod. ai, smwored am dros, Tqveni meufeba sdgas wminda mamulisSvi­lobiT aRvsili, qarTveli  SeuZlo eris siyvaruliT da daxmarebiT miubaZavi magaliTi, yvelasi, uSurveli yvelafris da yvelgan oRonT-ki amiT Cveni tomis ZeTa gankacebas, ganviTarebas da ganaTlebas rame Seematos. Tqvengan dawyebulma keTilma saqmeebma da Tavgamodebulma WeSmaritma samsaxurma, maRalma zneobam da eris siyvarulma yvela qarTvelis gulSi Tqveni saxeli brwyinvaled danerges. es danargi qarTvelis gulSi mtkiced Caiqsova; qarT­ve­li eris winaSe Tqveni samsaxuri ganaTlebis sasargeblod cxad iqmna, amitom qarT­velebma saerTod Tqven „qarTvelTa mama“ giwodes. am saukuneSi, qarTvelT eris wi­naSe arc erTs qarTvelT mRvdel-mTavars ar daumsaxurebia aseTi saxelwodeba, Tqven pirveli brZandebiT...“ (z. WiWinaZe, dasax. Sroma, gv. 50-51).

    Semdeg zaqaria WiWinaZe miuTiTebs, rom Semosulma mtrebma gaanadgurao Zve­lad­ve uriis qaldea, 700 wlis wineT armenia, Semdeg bizantia, daeca TviT dampy­robeli arabeTic, daecnen  slavianTa tomebic – Cernogoria,  dalmacia, ruminia, bosnia, bolgaria, serbia, albania)... am damamxobel barbarosebs aziaSi qarTveli eri gaumklavda, marto musulmanebs 500 weli ebrZoda, bevri gaTaTrda, bevric Soreul adgilebSi gadaasaxles da, madloba RmerTs, mainc gadavinarCuneT Tavi da aqobamdis movitaneT Cveni qveyana, Cveni ena da Cveni rwmena. amis gakeTeba qarTvelma xalxma SesZlo swored iseTi mfarveli mamuliSvilebis wyalobiT, rogoric aleqsandre episkoposia;  rom aseT mfarvelT da qomag mRvdelmTavrebs, aseTi mamuliSvi­lebsa da Tavdadebulebs saqarTvelo da misi eklesia kvlavac moiTxovs;  rom aleqsandre episkoposis msgavsTa saxeli gardaecema Taobidan Taobas. „diax, daSTeba da garda­e­ce­ma miT ufro, radganac Cven qarTvelTa metad bneli dReebi ganvleT, macxovris swavlis mzrunvelobisaTvis vewameT TviT misebr. cal xelSi jvari gvekava, calSi xmali da dRedaRam ar visvenebdiT da aseTis wamebiT vinaxavdiT Cvensa sarwmunoe­ba­sa da qveyanas“ (iqve, gv.2).

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis saintereso axali masalebia mocemuli 1907 wels  aseve z. WiWinaZis mier Sekrebil da gamo­ce­mul wign­Si „sityvebi da werilebi yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandreze“, romelSic, sxva doku­men­tebTan erTad, dabeWdilia i. WavWavaZis, k. kekeliZis, kalistrate cincaZis, zaqa­ria CxikvaZis, al. yifSiZis, sofrom mgalobliS­vi­lis, n. lomouris da sxv. sityvebi da werilebi.

    am didebul adamianis, – aleqsandre episkoposis, – samSoblosadmi Tavdadebisa da usazRvro siyvarulis brwyinvale gamoxatulebaa misi aRmSe­neb­lobiTi saqmianoba, SeiZleba aqac gavimeoroT, rom misi Taobis  arc erT sasuliero pirs imdeni ar gaukeTebia ganadgurebamde misuli qarTul monasterTa da eklesiaTa ganaxleba-aRorZinebisaTvis, ramdenic gaakeTa aleqsandre episkoposma.

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandrem, – auwyebda qarTvel xalxs gazeTi „Zveli sa­qar­Tvelo“, – Tavisi qonebis udidesi nawili moaxmara Sio mRvimis monastris ganax­le­bas: aRadgina eklesia da Zvirfasi mxatvrobiT Seamko wm. mRvimelis saflavis ekle­sia da daviT aRmaSeneblis mier agebuli didebuli taZari; mtkvris piras monastris mamulSi gaaSena Cinebuli zvari; aaSena monastris ZmaTaTvis sacxovrebeli binebi da, dasasrul, didZali Tanxa uanderZa monasters momavalSi mis uzrunvelsayofad“ (ix. z. WiWinaZe. sityve­bi da statiebi...“).

    manve ganaaxla  zedazenis, jvrisa da daviT garejis monastrebi.

    saerTod, saqarTveloSi ar iyo cotad Tu bevrad cnobili eklesia-monasteri, romelTa aRdgena-ganaxlenbisaTvis ar mieqcios jerovani yurad­Reba da ar gaeRos Sewiruloba maTi gadarCenis mizniT. 

    aleqsandre oqropiriZe iyo adamiani, romelsac, mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis man­Zilze, „Sioda da ar sWamda, swyuroda da ar svamda, scioda da ar Tbeboda“. samagie­rod, mTeli Tavisi SesaZleblobas ar iSurebda qarTveli xalxisaTvis, misi sulie­ri da materialuri kulturis dacvisaTvis man, rogorc xatovanad miuTiTebda kor­ne­li kekeliZe, kargad icoda, rom rogorc Tevzi ver momravleboda uwylod, ise RvTismsaxureba da beroba SeuZlebeli iyo umonastrod da miaRwia imas, rom bevr adgilze, sadac manamde yvav-buTa Cxavili ismoda, yuri daatkbo qarTuli saeklesio galobis momxiblavma xmam... mraval taZarTa Sina kvlav aJRerda qarTuli sagaloblebi, gaisma qveynis da xalxis gadamrCeneli qadagebani da swavlani.

    Rrmad ganaTlebulma aleqsandrem isic kargad icoda, rom saqarT­ve­loSi wa­vi­da gmirobis is xana, rodesac xmali icavda qarTvelTa samkvidros da dadga dro axa­li brZolisa, sadac mTavari Zala unda dafuZneboda swav­la-aRzrdas, kulturas, mec­nierebas.

    sxva mraval sikeTeTa Soris, aleqsandre episkoposma didi amagi dasdo afxaz xalxs, mis winaparTa nakvalevis movla-patronobas. man ganaaxla q. soxumis axlos Zveli eklesia, risTvisac misma imperatorobiTma udidebulesobam madlobac ki gamoucxada. aqve soxumTan, zRvis piras, aRadgina qviTkiris sasaflaos ekle­sia...

    rogorc arqimandriti ambrosi axasiaTebda: „RmerTma pirvel xanebSi mas arguna samsaxuri da moRvaweoba am saqarTvelos ganapira mxareSi jer rogorc afxazTa Svi­lebis aRmzrdeli, Semdeg rogorc misioner-mqadagebels da bolos rogorc mwyems-mTa­vars. is mudam Tavganwirulad ar zogavda sakuTar saSualebas SkolaT daarse­bi­saT­vis, Tavis xarjiT zrdida afxazTa Svilebs da amzadebda maT mRvdelobis xa­risx­Si samoRvaweod, – medgrad icavda samR­vde­loebis da samwysos interesebs, uxvad eweoda qvriv-obolTa;  mis da samwysos Soris arsebobda mamaSviluri kavSiri, da­fuZ­ne­buli qristianul siyvarulze... uzomo ndoba hqonda damsaxurebuli TviT mah­madian afxazTa Soris...“ ambross amis sailustraciod mohyavs magaliTi: roca 1866 wlis amboxebis Caqrobis Semdeg afxazebis umravlesoba saxldeboda TurqeTSi, aleq­sandresTan Semosula Turme erTi mahmadiani afxazi, saxelad urusi, Tavisi Tormeti wlis SviliT, rodesac gamoukiTxavs urusisaTvis mosvlis mizezi, ukanasknels mouxsenebia Semdegi: „SenTan movedi, keTilo mwyemso da mamao! me samudamoT veTxovebi samSoblos, mivdivar osmaleTSi sacxovreb­lad da Cemi vaJi unda davstovo SenTan, meti ara gamaCnia ra, coli da Svilebi adre davkarge,  ar vici ra momelis ucxo mxareSi, magram mainc vstoveb erTaderT Svils da SenTan moviyvane, mowyaleo mamao, vici miiReb, aRzrdi qristia­nulad da iqneba bednierio“ (z. WiWinaZe, „sityvebi da werilebi...“ gv. 11-12).

    ... arc Tavis  sofels aklebda yuradRebas aleqsandre, ganaaxla mSob­liuri di­se­vis eklesia.

     aseTi damokidebulebis Sedegi iyo misi Tanasoflelis al. tatunaS­vi­lis we­rili, romelic misi iubilesTan dakavSirebiT gamougzavna sparseTis sazRvridan. igi wers: „saqarTvelos eri ar daiviwyebs Tqvens RvawliT Semosil saxels; igi Tavisi istoriis furclebzed oqros asoebiT aRbeWdavs Tqveni meufebis saxelsa da Rvawls. saukunod iqneba agreTve dauviwyari Tqveni saxeli goris mazris patara sofel disevSi“ (z. WiWinaZe, sityvebi da werilebi...“, gv. 9-10).

    eklesia-monastrebis aRdgena-Sewirulebis mraval faqtorTa Soris (yvelas Ca­moTvla SeuZlebelia, aRsaniSnavia mis mier gaRebuli xarjebi saqarTvelos pirveli qristiani mefis wm. mirianis Zeglis asagebad mcxeTaSi (!). ar SeiZleba ar gavixsenoT isic, rom man berebisaTvis aago savaneebi, Sio mRvimeSi gaiyvana gza, mdinare mtkvarze ga­marTa borani, ZegvSi daarsebina rkinigzis baqani matareblis gasaCereblad. ganz­ra­xuli hqonda daearsebina yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi „kar-Ria wignT-sacavi“, aego af­Tiaqi, moewyo qsenoni  (saavadmyofo).

    da, yovelive amas akeTebda Tavisi xalxis Tvalis asaxelad, „dalaCre­bul“ dam­conarebul, uTavdarigo“ qceul adamianTa gamosaRviZeblad, ga­samx­neveblad. mtri­sa da moyvris Sesacnobad, raTa daeTrguna sibnele da sicocxle da sinaTle See­ta­na yvelas gulSi.

    aleqsandre episkoposi qarTveli eris gamoRviZebis, misi gaZlierebis da kul­turulad amaRlebis mTavar saSualebad sTvlida erovnul niadagze dafuZnebul swavla-ganaTlebas. „netavi rodis eRirseba qarTvelebs qarTuli skolao“, – xSirad ityoda Turme didebuli adamiani. is metad guldawyvetili iyo imis gamo, rom qarTvelTa  axali Taoba mSobliur enas, mSobliur literaturas, samSoblos  isto­riis codnas arafrad agdebda da gatacebuli iyo ara samSoblo enaze swavla-ganaTlebis miRebiT. mas guls uklavda is faqtic, rom saqarTvelos sasuliero saswavleblebSi qarTuli ena, rogorc savaldebulo sagani ar iswavleboda. amis Sesaxeb man araerTi moxseneba warudgina peterburgidan Camosul sinodis revizo­rebs da nawilobriv  Sedegsac miaRwia, – qarTuli ena da qarTuli galoba qarTvel mo­wa­fe­­TaTvis savaldebulo sagnebad iqca.

    man erT-erTma pirvelma gailaSqra dekanoz vostorgovis winaaRmdeg, sameg­re­los samrevlo skolebSi qarTuli enis swavlebis dasacavad.

    cda imisa, rom megrelebi daurwmunebiaT, TiTqos isini qarTvelebi ar iyvnen, aleqsandre episkoposisa da sxvaTa aqtiuri CareviT amxiles rusi saero da sasu­lie­ro xelmZRvanelebi, pirvel rigSi egzarxosi pavle, am ideis siyalbeSi.

    rodesac sakiTxi daisva gasxniliyo specialuri sasuliero saswav­lebe­li qal­TaT­vis, man  pirvelma didi roli iTamaSa am  keTilSobilur saqmeSi, – misi finan­si­u­ri daxmarebiTa da mecadineobiT 1878 wels TbilisSi daarsda eparqialuri saswav­lebeli, romelmac Cvens ers aRuzarda ramodenime aTasi ganaTlebuli qali.

    rogorc ganmanaTlebeli da pedagogi, igi marad qadagebda xalxTa Soris siyva­ruls, Zmobas da erTobas. igi iyo namdvili maswavlebeli ara marto sityviT, aramed saqmiT, – Tavisi praqtikuli moRvaweobiT.

    amitom iyo, rom saqarTveloSi ar moipoveboda TiTqmis raime saqvel­moqmedo, kulturuli sazogadoeba, romlis wevric ar yofiliyos da aqtiuri monawileoba ar mieRos mis muSaobaSi. aleqsandre episkoposi iTvleboda: „qristianobis aRmdgeneli sazogadoebis“, „wiTeli jvris, daWril da avadmyof meomarTa“, `usinaTloTa samzrun­ve­los“, „ruseTis wyalSi darCobi­sagan gadamrCeneli sazogadoebis“, `pirutyvTa mfarveli sazogadoebis“, `Rarib moswavleTa damxmarebel sazogadoebis, `wminda and­rias da yovlad RvTismSoblis Zmobis“, `filaromoniuli sazogadoebis“, siZveleT­sacavis, qarTuli „dabadebis“ teqstis damdgeneli komitetis, mcxeTis taZris ganmaax­lebeli komitetis, „saqarTvelos saistorio da saeTnografiuli sazogadoebis“ da sxv. aqtiur wevrad.

    qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma sazogadoebam 1896 wlis 12 maisis saerTo krebaze, iakob gogebaSvilisa da daviT kariWaSvilis moxsenebaTa sa­fuZ­velze, aleqsandre episkoposi, iliasTan da akakisTan erTad, airCia sazoga­doebis pirvel sapatio wevrad  (sscia, f. 484 C, aRw. I, saqme 468), – „niSnad pativiscemisa im did RvawlisaTvis romelic mas miuZRvis saqarTve­los winaSe rogorc imiTi, rom beWdavs warCinebulTa sasuliero mweralTa Txzu­le­baT, aaxlebs SesaniSnav dangreul taZarTa da scdilobs aRvadginoT Zveli qarTuli galoba da amisaTvis yovel gvars RonisZiebasa hRonebs, ise imiTi, rom, xels uwyobs saqarTvelos xalxis gonebrivs ganviTarebas da Tavisas xarjiT hzrdis bevrs obols sxvadasxva saswavleblebSi“.

    mis mier gaRebuli xarjiT, misive iniciatiiTa da rekomendaciiT daibeWda“: „ambrosi nekreseli episkoposis „sityvani da moZRvrebani“, 1881 (sxvaTa Soris, amave wels calke wignad gamovida aleqsandre episkoposis sityva, romelic warmosTqva q. axalcixis RvTismSoblis miZinebis taZarSi axalcixis dekanozisa da blaRoCinis giorgi gamrekelis moRvaweobis 50 wlisTavze). 1884 wels gamosca giorgi avalianis, – „xma codvilisa RmrTi­sad­mi“ (poema); orbeliani sulxan-saba, – „qarTuli leqsikoni“  (raf. erisTavis wi­nasityvaobiTa da redaqtorobiT), 1884 w; anton I. kaTalikosi, – qarTuli Rramatika“, raf. erisTavis winasityvaobiT, 1885 w.; misive „mza-metyveleba, qmnili anton I saqarTvelos kaTalikozisagan“, p. karbelaSvilis redaq­toro­biT (wina­­sityvaoba al. episkopozisa), 1892 w.; Tedo Jordanias – „istoriuli sabuTebi Sio-mRvimis monastrisa da „Zegli  vahxanis qvabTa“, 1896 w.; ipoli­tov-ivanovi, mixeil mi­xei­lis Ze, – „qarTuli galoba (qarTul-kaxur kiloTi), „liturRia“, notebze gadaRebuli, 1899 w.; poliekvtos karbela­Svi­li, – „ierarqia saqarTvelos eklesiisa kaTalikosni da mRvdelmTavarni“, 1900 w.; Tedo  Jordania, – „qarTl-kaxeTis monastre­bi­sa da eklesiebis istoriuli sabuTebi, 1903 weli. didi  amagi dasdo „dabade­bis“ Seswore­beb­sa da misi qarTulad dabeWdvis saqmes.

    1882 wels episkoposi aleqsandre ozurgeTidan zaqaria WiWinaZes imasac werda, rom mas gadauwyvetia petriwis leqsikonis gamocema, magram ar vici, vin iqneba iseTi kaci, romelsac mivandobT am saqmeso... „kaci unda iyos swavluli da patriotio“. aseve apirebda pl. ioselianis TxzulebaTa gamocemas.

    am didebul adamians upirvelesad yovlisa ainteresebda saqarTvelo, qarTveli eri, misi ena da istoria; rom igi iyo gulwrfeli da dauRalavi mfarveli qarTuli mwerlobisa, qarTuli saistorio mecnierebisa da, saerTod, qarTuli kulturisa.

    erovnul, sxva sadidebel saqmianobasTaen erTad, did da gansakuT­re­bul yuradRebas aqcevda da dauRalavad iRvwoda qarTul sagalobelTa aRdgena-SenarCunebisaTvis. mas kargad esmoda qarTuli musikis  Zala da Zliereba. rogorc saero, ise sasuliero musikis aRdgenis saqmes TviTon Caudga saTaveSi da am zrunvam didi nayofi gamoiRo, dakargvas gadaarCina mravali musikaluri margaliti, qarTu­li sagalobeli.

    1882 wels z. WiWinaZisadmi guriidan gamogzavnil erT-erT werilSi, aleq­san­d­re episkoposi werda: „me didad moxaruli var, rom Tqven did Rirsebas aZlevT im saq­­meTa, romelTac me Sevdgomilvar: e.i. qarTul Zveli da axali mwerlobis aRdgena­sa, agreTve, galobisa da sxvaTa. 

    erTi sityviT, me Sevudeqi qarTuli enisa da literaturis aRdgenas, da Tqvenc Zlier kargad mimxvdarxarT da agiwoniaT, rom me Cvenis samSoblo qarTuls enis aRdgomis, dafuZnebis da ganviTarebis sarbielzed gamovsulvar. asparezi ese, Cemi azriT da TqveniTac, friad mSvenier da sasargeblo ars“ (z. WiWinaZe. „sityvebi da werilebi...“, gv. 04).

    rogorc vxedavT, did mamuliSvils kargad esmoda, Tu risTvis zrunavda, ra mniSvneloba hqonda saqarTvelosaTvis mis mier dabeWdil wignebs, aRdgenil ekle­sia-monastrebs, skolebsa da seminariebSi qarTuli enis danergvas. qarTuli saga­loblebis aRdgenasa da Caweras, istoriuli sabuTebis Sekrebas da maT publikacias.

    did ukmayofilebas gamoxatavda agreTve im mtrul aqtze, riTac erTmorwmune rusuli eklesiis mesveurTa wyalobiT qarTul eklesias damoukidebloba (avtokefalia) daekarga. „avtokefalia imisTvis ki ar mexareba, – ambobda aleqsandre episkoposi, – rom, rogorc yvelaze damsaxurebuls kaTalikozoba me mergos, aramed imisaTvis, rom qarTvel sasuliero wodebas cotaT Tu bevrad Tavisufleba mieces. maSin is qarTvelebisaTvis mavne pirebi, romelnic exla arian sasuliero wodebaTa ricxvSi, saqarTvelos eklesiidan ganidevnebiano“ (z. WiWinaZe, „sityvebi da werilebi“. gv. 73-74).

    misi yuradRebis areSi iyo yvela qarTveli, es exeba, rogorc saqarTveloSi, ase mis farglebs gareT macxovreblebs. gansakuTrebuli TanagrZnobiTa da gulis­xmierebiT ekideboda qarTvel mahmadianebs, maTi ganaTlebisa da kvlav „moqcevis“ sakiTxebs (skolebisa da eklesiebis gaxsnas, maTi istoriis Sedgenas da sxv.).

    aleqsandre episkoposi iyo namdvilad didi qarTveli. magram yovelive es, sru­lebiTac ar uSlida xels  hyvareboda sxva xalxi, gansakuTrebiT saqarTvelos teri­to­riaze macxovreblebi. igi rusebis Sesaxeb ambobda: – me miyvars saqarTvelo, qarTveli eri, misi ena da istoria, es me ar miSlis xels, rom masTanve miyvardes ruseTi, ruseTis eri... menatrebodes ruseTis amaRleba, dawinaureba... rom qarTvelebs rusebi uyvarT da eyvarebaT kidec. maT sZulT cudi kaci, rogorc qarTveli, ise rusi da sxvanic“ (iqve, gv. 106, 109).

    aleqsandre episkoposs, rogorc SesaniSnav adamiansa da moqalaqes, axasiaTebda zomaze metad Tavmdabloba, gulkeTiloba da Semwynarebloba. misi Tavmdablobis dadasturebaa 1897 wlis 25 aprils „iveriaSi“ gamoqveynebuli werili: „batono re­daq­toro!“ (Txovna, raTa aravin Sewuxdes da ar miulocon saiubileo wlisTavi).

    aRsaniSnavia, rom aleqsandre episkoposis moRvaweobaze, mis qvelmoqmedebaze sistematurad ibeWdeboda Jurnal-gazeTebSi cnobebi, werilebi informaciebi: „aleqsandre episkoposis xarjiT daarsebuli qalTa sasuliero saswavlebeli“, „episkopos aleqsandres mecadineoba qalTa saeparqio skolis daarsebisaTvis“, „aleqsandre episkoposis xarjiT qalTa skolis gaxsna ozurgeTSi“, „aleqsandre epis­koposis mier qarTuli galobebis notebze gadaReba“, „goris episkoposi aleq­san­dres mier daviT garejis monastris SekeTeba“, „uZvelesi saxarebis gamocemis gan­z­raxva al. xaxanaSvilis winasityvaobiT da aleqsandre episkoposis safasiT“, „sa­su­liero seminariaSi qarTuli enis kaTedris dasaarseblad fulis Sewirvis ganzraxva aleqsandre episkoposis mier“, „aleqsandre episkoposis saxelobis stipendiis da­niSv­na Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi“, „platon ioselianis TxzulebaTa Segro­veba da gamocemis ganzraxva aleqsandre episkoposis mier“, „aleqsandre episkoposis 25 wlis iubileze goris mazris TavadaznaurTa  winamZRvrisagan“, „aleqsandre episkoposis  Sesawiravi Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebisa da wignebis gamosacemad“, „keTili kvali aleqsandre episkoposisa“, „guria-samegrelos episkoposi aleqsandres Suamdgomloba aWaraSi skolis gasaxsnelad“, „q. ozurgeTSi qarTuli galoba-simReris Sesaswavli „sagaloblo kabinetis“ daarseba aleqsandre episkoposis mier“, „yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres mobrZaneba kavkavSi da adgilobriv qarTvelTa daxvedra“, „aleqsandre episkoposis xarjiT rkinigzis baqnis gamarTva mcxeTasa da qsans Soris“ (ZegvSi), „baTumis qarTuli eklesiis aSeneba episkoposis aleqsandres SewirulobiT“, „aleqsandre ekpiskoposis mier jvaris eklesiis ganaxleba“, „grafinia uvarovas Txovna martvilis taZris samkaulebis moskovis muzeumSi gagzavnis Sesaxeb da aleqsandre episkoposis mier uaris SeTvla“, „aleqsandre episkoposis sityva krwanisis velze samSoblosaTvis TavdadebulTa mosaxseneblad“ da sxva mravali. misi naRvawaris Sesaxeb gamoqveynebuli werilebis sruli dasaxelebac Sors wagviyvanda. ibeWdeboda agreTve piradad misi qadagebani, darigebani, sityvebi da sxv.

    *   *   *

    aleqsandre episkoposi iyo magaliTi zneobrivi cxovrebisa, piruT­v­ne­li, uSi­Sari, dauZinebeli mteri eklesiis da qveynis mdevnelTa, mamxilebeli ara marto did meufeTa – „ZlierTa ama soflisaTa“, aramed mZraxvelic Cveni cxovrebis yovelive naklisa da adamianTa cud-saqcielisa; iyo obolT nugeSi, RaribTa imedi da STa­ma­go­nebeli im WeSmaritebisa, rom sulis cxovneba marto locviT ar moipoveba, rom locva-kurTxevasTan erTad saWiroa samSoblos siyvaruli, misTvis yoveldRiuri garja, Sroma, Tavdadeba... jvarcma.

    diax, aleqsandre episkoposi namdvilad iyo qarTveli eris Tavdade­buli Wirisufali, mecxramete saukunis cocxali matiane, amave saukunis „meo­re Sio“, „qarTvelTa mama“, „saqarTvelos aRmaSenebeli“, adamiani, romelsac cxov­rebis wmindaTa-wmindad ori didi sagani hqonda: erTi RmerTi da meore samSoblo qveyana. RmerTs RmrTisas aZlevda da qveyanas qveynisas da orives emsaxureboda udidesi siyvaruliT, radgan, rogorc ilia WavWavaZe brZanebda, „RmerTi ars siyvaruli da siyvaruli mxsnelia qveynisa“.

    samaradiso dideba tanjuli eris warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis SemaerTebel erT-erT mtkice burjis, – aleqsandre episkoposis ukvdav saxels! mSvidoba miwas qarTvlisas, romelSic ganisvenebs ferfli didebuli mamuliSvilisa!!

     

     

                                                

     

                                                          zurab oqropiriZe

     

       wminda mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre

     

    „gSiodaT da ar sWamdiT, gwyurodaT da ar svamdiT, gciodaT da ar TbebodiT imisTvis ki ara, rom viTarca angarma da Zunwma Tqveni TavisaTvis oqro da vercxli moixveWoT, aramed imisTvin, rom rac  sakuTari Tqveni TavisTvis ar gemetebodaT, rasac Tqvens Tavs aklebdiT  is  sxvas SehmateT... Tqven samSoblos moaxmareT...“ – wm. ilia marTali

    ,,keTilgvarovani oqropiriZeni“ samar­Tlianad amayoben Tavisi warsuliT, saxelo­vani winaprebiT. isini odiTganve uflisa da mamulis samsaxurSi idgnen, gamorCeulni Tavisi ganaTlebiT, qristes rjulisadmi siyvaruliT. amitomaa qarTuli marTlma­di­deb­luri eklesiis istoriaSi ase Warbad warmodgenili oqropiriZeTa gvaris cnobili sa­suliero moRvaweebi.

    XVIII saukuneSi cnobili misionerebi iyvnen besarion da gabriel oqropiriZeebi, romelnic lekeT-CeCneT-inguSeTSi avrcelebdnen qristes rjuls. XIX s-is dasawyisSi li­­axvis xeobis saTaveSi, sofel edisSi osTa Soris moRvaweobda cnobili misioneri mRvde­li daviT oqropiriZe. cotam Tu icis, rom swored aq, mRvdel daviTis saxlis sajiniboSi (osebis daJinebuli TxovniT wesi, romliTac qals boselSi an sajiniboSi unda emSobiara, mRvdlis meuRlezec gavrcelda) 1822 wels daibada yrma aleqsi oqro­pi­ri­­Ze, romelic SemdgomSi mama aleqsandred wodebuli eqvsi aTeuli wlis manZilze Tavis sulier SvilTan, wminda ilia marTalTan da sxva mamuliSvilebTan erTad mtkice burjad daudga marTlmadideblobas, tyvedpyrobil samSoblos. arsTa gamrigem ineba, isic, ufal iesos msgavsad, bagaSi dabadebuliyo da mTeli cxovreba mociqulTamebr dauRalavad eqadaga misi moZRvreba. rogorc sasuliero gvaris da ojaxis Svili, bavSobidanve eziara eklesiur cxovrebas.

    1845 wels gorisa da Tbilisis sasuliero saswavleblebis damTav­rebis Semdeg iwyeba misi xangrZlivi sasuliero moRvaweoba Tbilisis feriscvalebis eklesiaSi berad aRkve­ciT, mTa­vardiakvnad kurTxeviTa da meore wels yazanis sasauliero akademiaSi SesvliT. igi 1850 wels RvTis­metyvelebis kandidatis xarisxiT brundeba saqarTveloSi da pedago­giur moRvaweobas iwyebs Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi.

    Rrmad ganaTlebuli mRvdel-monazoni grZnobda did niWsa da energias da imasac, rom igi samSoblo qveynis, qristia­no­bis ganmtkicebisaTvis unda gaexarja. momavali epis­koposi im dros gamovida asparezze, rodesac ers Rrma ZiliT misZineboda. rusulma sasu­liero-saeroreformebma”, egzarxo­sis institutma mTlad moaryia eris sarwmu­noebriv-zneobrivi yofa. monasteri da monaz­vnoba aRaravis izidavda. odesRac didebuli saek­lesio-samonastro Zeglebi nadgur­deboda da carieldeboda. iqidan tkbili galobis nacvladyvav-buTa Cxavili ismoda”. (korneli kekeliZe). saqarTvelo TaTqariZeobis se­niT seriozulad iyo daavadebuli.

    axalgazrda, RmerTSemosili beri adgens erTgvar samoqmedo programas: misi azriT, qarTveli eris gaerTianeba-gaZlierebis, misi sulieri da erovnuli cnobierebis aRdge­ni­s­­Tvis, upirvelesad, saWiroa sarwmunoebriv-erovnul TviTSegnebaze dafuZ­nebuli swav­la­-ganaTleba, dangreul-dacarielebuli eklesia-monastrebis aRdgena da Sig mSobliur enaze wirva-locvis aRvlena.

    mRvdelmTavris aqtiuri samisionero-saganmanaTleblo moRvaweoba afxazeTidan iw­y­­­e­ba, sadac man TiTqmis ori aTeuli weli dahyo. igi yalibdeba udides sasuliero-saero moRvawed. ber-monazoni aleqsandre didi ilias nacionalur-humanisturi moZraobis wi­na­­mor­bedi da erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis uTvalisCinoesi warmomadgenelia (SemTxveviT ar irCevs ilia marTali mas Tavis sulier moZRvrad).

    1851 wlidan igi afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis zedam­xedveli da quTaisis sa­su­liero da samazro skolebis inspeqtoria. xelmZRvanelobs afxazeTis mRvdelmonazonT. 1856 wels arqimandritis xarisxi uboZes. 1862 wlis martSi Tbilisis sionis sakaTedro taZarSi xeldasxmul iqna afxazeTis episkoposad.

    mwyemsmTavarma farTo samoRvaweo fron­ti gaSala.

    misma udidesma qvelmoqmedebam, sulis siwrfelem, Rrma da gulSi Camwvdomma qada­gebebma aTasobiT afxazi moaqcia qristes rjulze. yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre faqtiu­rad iyo pir­veli pedagogi afxazeTSi, pirveli oficialuri saswavleblis damaarsebeli, mis Tanamedrove afxazTa Soris swavla-ganaTlebis fuZemdebeli da maTi didi qomagi. afxazeTis mTavarma mixeil ServaSiZem mas miando sakuTari Svilis giorgis aRzrda.

    XIX saukuneSi, afxazTa muhajirobis wlebSi, ise rogorc mTlianad qarTuli sazo­gadoeba, episkoposi aleqsandre TavgamodebiT icavda TanamoZmeTa interesebs.

    cnobi­li faqtia: TurqeTSi gasaxlebisTvis ganwirulma musulmanma afxazma urusma Tavisi Svi­li mwyemsmTavars Caabara da Seevedra igi WeSmarit qristianad aRezarda. misma meufebam sasowarkveTili kacis Txovna brwyin­valed Seasrula da misi Svili marTlac Rirseul adamianad aRzarda, romelic SemdegSi qristes WeSmariti msaxuri gaxda. sruliad samar­Tlianad misma Tanamedroveebma wminda mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres ,,af­xazeTis meore mociquli“, ,,meore aRmaSenebeliuwodes.

    misma dauRalavma moRvaweobam, didma avtoritetma mrevlSi, simSvide daurRvia im­pe­riis maRalCinosnebs. mlocvel-mqadagebel berSi maT dainaxes udidesi erovnuli moRva­we, qarTvel-afxazTaTvis mSobliur enaze ganaTlebisa da maTi erTobisaTvis mebrZoli pi­ri, romelic realur safrTxes uqmnida ruseTis interesebs afxazeTSi. gaxSirda mRvdelmTavris dasmenebi, saidumlo werilebi sulgayidul qarTvelTa Tu rus Cinov­nikTa mxridan imperiis umaRlesi xelisuflebisadmi. 60-iani wlebis bolos episkoposi aleqsandre afxazeTis eparqias Camoaciles da  qarTl-kaxeTis episkoposoba uboZes. 1882-86 wlebSi mRvdelmTavari guriis eparqias marTavs. Semdeg ki, 1898 wlamde kvlav qarTl-kaxeTis eparqiis mmarTvelia.

    wminda sinodis gadawyvetilebiT 1886-87 wlebSi episkopos aleqsandres miendo Ta­vi­sive aR­dgenili daviT garejisa da SiomRvimis monastrebis winamZRvroba. zemoaR­niS­nulis garda wminda moR­vawem Tavisi safasiT aRadgina zedazeni, mcxeTis  jvari, sveti­cxo­veli, mSobliuri disevisa da kulbiTis lekTagan dangreuli eklesiebi da qveynis sxva­da­sxva kuTxeSi arsebuli eklesia-monastrebi. dekanozi nikita TalakvaZe werda: ,,...saqar­Tvelos hyavda mefe daviT aRma­Senebeli, imav saqarTvelos dabeCavebul eklesias aw hyavs mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre aRmaSe­nebeli“.

    mRvdelmTavris saxsrebiTa da iniciativiT daibeWda da gamoica sxvadasxva saero da saek­le­sio literaturuli Zeglebi. 1896 wels igi iliasTan da akakisTan erTad airCies qar­TvelTaSo­ris wera-kiTxvis gamvrcelebeli sazogadoebis pirvel sapatio wevrad – ,,niS­nad im didi Rvawli­saTvis, romelic mas miuZRvis saqarTvelos winaSe, rom hbeWdavs warCinebulTa sasuliero mwe­ralTa TxzulebaT... da scdilobs aRadginos Zveli qarTu­li galoba... Tavisis xarjiT hzrdis bevrs obols sxvadasxva saswavlebelSi“.

    saocari rudunebiTa da enTuziazmiT agrovebda miviwyebul qarTul sagaloblebs. misi iniciativiT 1878 wels Seiqmna, `Zveli qarTuli galobis aRmdgeneli komiteti“. mRvdelmTavris Seuvalma avtoritetma qarTvelT moZule egzarxosi ioanikec aiZula mxa­ri daeWira am wamo­wy­e­bi­saTvis. am saSviliSvilo saqmisaTvis misma meufebam ar dazoga saku­Tari Zala da Tanxebi. mavanTa umadurobam da daumsaxurebelma braldebebma aqac atkines guli usaTnoes moZRvars. igi gadadga komitetis Tavmjdomareobidan, Tumca 1899 wels mainc SesZlo sagaloblebis dabeWdva da notebze gadaReba.

    ,,Tu axla, – werda cnobili moRvawe da publicisti niko xizaniSvili, – qarTuli sam­wyso ase stkbeba saeklesio simebis JReriT da galobis momxiblavis xmiT, madlobelni unda viyvneT Cvenis Zvirfasis yovlad samRvdelosi, romelsac Cveni axali saeklesio istoria da STamomavloba aleqsandre aRmadgenels uwodebs...“

    wminda mRvdelmTavari mtkiced idga erovnul-sarwmunoebriv sadarajoze. misma da­piris­pi­rebam rus didmoxeleebTan piks 900-iani wlebis dasawyisSi miaRwia, roca didi ma­mu­liSvili qar­Tuli enis Seuracyofis gamo Riad daupirispirda Crdiloel Savraz­me­lebs. manamde ki iyo 1886 we­li, giorgobisTve. veragulad mokluli dimitri yifianis dakrZalva, romelic erovnul demo­n­straciad gadaiqca. xalxmraval procesias meufe aleq­sandre xelmZRvanelobda. roca mTavarmar­Tebelis brZanebiT mTawmindisken mimavali pro­ce­sia SeaCeres, eris sulierma moZRvarma xmamaRla SesZaxa: ,,aq baton-patroni me var da ara mTavarmarTebeli! aba, gamomyeviT, vnaxoT, vin dagvidgeba win!...“ xalxi azvirTda, imperi­is maRalCinosnebma ukan daixies.

    1903 wlidan mxcovan mRvdelmTavars moulodnelad CamoarTves guria-samegrelos eparqiis mwyemsmTavroba. wminda mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres ar apaties erovnuli intere­se­bis dacva. mterma, Sinaurmac da gareulmac, sawadels miaRwia. igi ,,damsaxurebulpensi­a­ze gauSves. episkoposma wminda savanes - SiomRvimis monasters miaSura. ganmartovda. gane­ri­da cxovrebas...

    erisTvis Tavgan­wiruli moRvawe TiTqos miiviwyes. ,,...mravalTa Ruawlisa wil ra mogageT Sen yovladsamRvdelo meufeo?.. yvela CamogSordiT, yvelam giRalateT... gulic gagitexeT da uimedobaSi Cagagdo Cvenma beCaobaman da am ubiri xalxis Seugneb­lo­bam“ – mimarTa mis cxedars mRvdelma vasil karbelaSvilma.

    wminda meufem SiomRvimis monas­tris restavraciisaTvis daxarja 21 aTasi maneTi, zedaznisaTvis ki – 11 aTasi da isini fi­nansuradac uzrunvelhyo. ,,...me bednierad vsTvli Cem Tavs imitom, – brZana monasterSi mis­vlisTanave misma meufebam, rom ase Tu ise  movagvare am wminda mamis saflavi da veRirsebi, Cemi ukanaskneli dReni am wminda udabnos zRudeSi ganvlio“.

    magram aqac ar moasvenes, viRacis binZuri xeli aqac miswvda wminda moZRvars: erT sa­Ra­mos monasters Tavs daesxnen; episkoposis erTguli mesenake maqsime CigogiZe grZnobda, rom meufes sikvdiliT emuqrebodnen. morCilma wminda mamis samosi Caicva... tyviamac ar daaxana. maqsimem Tavi gaswira sayvareli moZRvrisaTvis. amagdarma moRvawem Zlier ganicada  misi sikvdili, rac gamoxata episkopos leonidesadmi miweril werilSi

    wminda moRvawem saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi Tavisi xarjebiT daarsa qalTa Tu vaJTa saswavleblebi, Rarib da niWier bavSvebs dauniSna Tavisi saxelobis stipendiebi. gan­sakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo 1878 wels Tbilisis qalTa saeparqio saswavleblis da­arseba, romelmac fasdaudebeli wvlili Seitana qarTveli qalebis momavali aRzrda-ganaT­le­bis saqmeSi.

    mudmiv RvawlSi yofniT, marxva-locviT, martivi cxovrebiT, saTnoebiT, uzo­mo qvelmoqmedebiT da amave dros mkacri pirdapirobiT, igi ZvelqarTvel mRvdel­mTa­v­rebs mog­vagonebs. yvelaferi samSoblosTvis da moyvasisTvis emeteboda. cxovrobda ro­gorc ubralo, mwiri beri, sjerdeboda xmel pursa da mwvanils. misi sulieri  Svili, wminda ilia marTali ase mimarTavda Tavis sulier moZRvars: ,,...Tqveni sicocxle mTeli da ga­nuwyveteli saTnoebaa, rom­lis magaliTs marto im madliT cxebuls mRvdel-monozvnebis Soris vpoulobT, romelnic erT dros yofilan CvenSi, Cvenda saubedurod exla aRar arian. Tqven xorci daumorCileT suls da erTi udidesi saTnoebac eg aris... gSiodaT da ar sWamdiT, gwyurodaT da ar svamdiT, gciodaT da ar TbebodiT imisTvis ki ara, rom viTarca angarma da Zunwma oqro da vercxli moixveWoT, aramed imisTvin, rom rac sakuTar Tqveni TavisTvis ar gemetebodaT, is sxvas SehmateT... Tqvens samSoblos moaxmareT...“.

    Tavisi ena maxvili qadagebebiT mwyemsmTavari mudmivad STaagonebda ers erTurTis siyva­ruls. siRaribeSi gardacvlili qarTveli moRvawis, ivane kereseliZis cxedarTan, sa­dac sazo­ga­doebis cnobili adamianebic iyvnen, mourideblad amxila qarTuli sazoga­do­e­bis umoqmedoba da gulgriloba: ,,...sakvirvelia Cveni qarTvelebis saqme, CvenisTana axirebuli xalxi, ar vici Tu kidev iqmneba sadme? – cocxals mSiers vklavT da roca mok­vdeba, maSin ki vglovobT... droa gavaxiloT Tvalebi... vuSveloT Cvens Tavs... marto wera da laparaki ar kmara... Cemo anton! (anton furcelaZes) aq rom gamomWimixarT, saqme is ki ara ris... wadiT aqedam, aqeT-iqiT mideqiT, modeqiT da qarTvelT SeZ­lebulebs daavaleT sawyali qarTveli xalxis patronoba... Torem RmerTs geficebiT daviRu­pebiT, aRvigvebiT; ase batonebo, visac riT SegiZliaT, imiT emsaxureT qveyanas. muxran batons da­ataneT Zala, rom gaxsnas Tavisi skivri da sawylebs uSvelos...“

     

                                                            wm. aleqsandre episkoposi iliaobaze

      

           wm. mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres xati           kaTolikos-patriarqi leonide    

     

          

           episkoposebi: aleqsandre  da leonide      episkoposebi: leonide da kirioni    

    wminda moRvawe arasdros moridebia maRali rangis saero Tu sasuliero pirTa mxilebas Tundac... micvalebulis. cnobili pirovnebis, levan meliqiSvilis dakrZalvis dRes ase mimarTa WirisufalT da sazogadoebas: ,,gansvenebuli yovlisfriT sruli iyo... iyo didi SeZlebis pat­roni... didi saxelic hqonda. misi ubedureba erTi is iyo, rom mas Tavisi qveynis da eris winaSe mcired eWira Tvali. qarTvelT gaWirvebas ar aqcevda yura­dRebas. maS vinatreb, rom RmerTma amas cxoneba daumkvidros, sasufeveli mRvTisa da sxva mis msgavs kacTa aSoros gulgriloba saqarTvelos winaSe...“

    misma meufebam yalbis ­mqne­lo­bi­­saTvis mkacrad gakicxa medrove da rusofili epis­koposi dimitri abaSiZe. XIX saukunis meore naxevris saqarTveloSi ar moipoveboda saq­vel­moqmedo Tu kulturul-saganma­naT­leblo sazogadoeba, romlis aqtiuri wevri ar yo­filiyos igi da finansurad ar Seweodes mas.

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres moRvaweobis 50 wlis iubilesTan dakavSirebiT cno­bilma sazogado moRvawem da istorikosma zaqaria WiWinaZem Semdegi sityvebiT mimarTa mas: ,,...Tqvengan dawyobilma keTilma saqmeebma da Tavgamodebulma samsaxurma, maRalma zneobam da eris siyvarulma, yvela qarTvelis gulSi Tqveni saxeli brwyinvaled danerges... amitom qarTvelT saerTod Tqven ,,qarTvelTa mamagiwodes. am saukuneSi qarTvelT eris winaSe arc erTs qarTvel mRvdelmTavars ar daumsaxurebia aseTi saxelwodeba. Tqven pir­veli brZandebiT...“

    aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos momavali kaTolikos-patriarqis efrem meoris (eris­ka­cobaSi grigol sidamoniZe. 1896-1972) sulier wvrTnasac safuZveli didma mRvdel­mTa­varma Cauyara. 1903-07 wlebi jer kidev patara grigolma Sio mRvimis mo­nasterSi wminda ep­iskoposis morCilebaSi gaatara. uwmindesi efremi wminda aleqsandres deidis SvilisSvi­lis Svili iyo (aleqsandres da efremis papisgrigolis dedebi RviZli debi iyvnen).

    mama giorgi sidamoniZis (uwmindesi efremis ZmisSvilis Svili) gadmocemiT wminda episko­pos­ma Tavisi samRvdelmTavro kverTxi sruliad ymawvil grigols dautova. es iyo erTgvari estafeta, naTelxilva. amagdarma moRvawem patara SegirdSi qarTuli eklesiis  momavali sa­WeTmpyrobel dainaxa. uwmindesi patriarqis TqmiT, wminda aleqsandre sama­ga­liTo moZRvari da didi mamuliSvili gaxldaT, romelmac mniSvnelovnad gansazRvra misi momavali.

    wminda mRvdelmTavris saxelovanma Rvawlma ber-monazvnobis gzaze Seayena araerTi qarTve­li, maT Soris misi sakuTari ZmisSvili da ZmisSvilis Svili, cnobili episkoposebi leonidi da pirosi. wminda ilia marTali ase mimarTavda Tavis sulier moZRvars: ,,mar­tod isic sakmarisia Tqvenis madlobiT xsenebisTvis, rom Tqvenis meoxebiT gamouzardeT Cvens qveyanas imisTana Svili, rogoric axladnakurTxi episkoposi leonidea... Cven imedi gvaqvs, rom Tqveni gazrdili, Tqveni gawvrTnili ara ekals ar SeuSindeba da Tqvenis magivrobas gagviwevs...“

    WeSmaritad axda didi ilias sityvebi: episkoposebma leonidem da pirosma wminda kirionTan da wminda ambrosisTan erTad gadamwyveti roli Seasrules qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis mopovebis saqmeSi da mowameobrivad aResrulnen.

    xangrZlivi cxovrebis manZilze wminda meufem uamrav gansacdels gauZlo. araerTxel gamxadara TviTmxilvelili Cveni dacemis, ugulobis, magram warmoudgeneli Ralati da qarTvelT dacema saqarTvelos upirvelesi Wirisuflis, Tavisi sulieri Svilis ilias veraguli mkvleloba, win eloda.

    sicocxle moewamla moxuc moZRvars. man ukanaskneli Zala moikriba da asakisa da umetesad qarTvelT siavisagan mouZlurebulma erTaderTxel ,,gatexaaRTqma, pirvelad da ukanasknelad datova wminda Sios savane. 1907 wels mTawmindaze saqarTvelos ugvir­gvino patriarqi ukanasknelad moefera saqarTvelos ugvirgvino mefes da dauloca gza ma­ra­disobisaken. didma qarTvelma ukanasknelad gadmoxeda codva-madlian samSoblos. uka­nasknelad warmoTqva sityva da samwysos qceviT gulgaglejili dabrunda monas­terSi. mci­re xnis Semdeg, 9 noembers, Tavadac miiZina saukuno ZiliT.

    erTi kvira glovobda sruliad saqarTvelo. 1907 wlis 16 noembers Sio mRvimis didebulma savanem samudamod miibara misi wminda sxeuli.

    ,,WeSmaritad samgloviaroa, satirel-savalaloa, – werda sofrom mgalobliSvili, – rom mogvaklda wminda kaci, wminda beri, umwikvlod da uangaro adamiani. savalalod Cemda, piradad ver daveswar meufe aleqsandres dakrZalvas, rom ukanasknelad vmTxveviyav mis wminda Sublsa... davkonebodi mis mkerds, sadac scemda guli samSoblo qveynis sakeTil­dReod...“

    akademikos korneli kekeliZis sityvebiT igi iyo ,,cxovelmyofeli varskvlavi, romelic naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi ara Tu oden anaTebda, aramed yvelafers anaT­lebda“.

    1995 wels saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wminda sinodma episkoposi aleqsandre wmindanad Seracxa. misi xsenebis dRed dawesebulia 8 noemberi.

    erTi saswauli: 2006 wels disevis ZelicxovelSi dabrZanebuli wminda aleqsandres xatidan mironma iwyo dena. diseveli ioseb giunaSvilis meSveobiT SevZeliT am movlenis firze aRbeWdva. iRumenma ioanem (oqropiriZe) gangvimarta, rom es iyo gafrTxileba mosalodneli safrTxis Sesaxeb. weliwadnaxevris Semdeg disevi davtoveT... 

    iSviaTia erT patara sofels, gvars (XIX s-is miwuruls disevSi 60-mde ojaxi cxovrobda) hyavdes wmindani, kaTalikos-patriarqi, episkoposebi, sxvadasxva ierarqiis samRvdelo pirebi, cnobili saero moRvaweni. ufro iSviaTia erTma ojaxma erT epoqaSi Svas sami didi mRvdelmTavari.

     


                                   

                       jemal gamaxaria

     

    episkoposi aleqsandre (oqropiriZe) da afxazeTi

     

    XIX s. 50-60 wlebi, roca aleqsandre oqropiriZe afxazeTSi msaxurobda, iyo gar­datexis periodi ruseTis politikaSi saqarTvelos mimarT. erTis mxriv, sabo­lood dasrulda imperiis interesebiT – kavkasiel mTielebTan da yirimis omebSi (aRmosavleTis sakiTxi) qarTvelTa loialobis uzrunvel­yo­fis (rac sasicocxlod aucilebeli iyo ruseTisaTvis) mcdelobiT nakar­naxevi „liberalizmis“ politika, romelic mefisnacval m. voroncovis (1844-1854 w.w.) saxels ukavSirdeba; maSin moxda qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis ukanaskneli naSTebis – samegrelosa (1857 w.) da afxazeTis samTavroTa (1864 w.) gauqmeba; damTavrda xangrZlivi sisxlismRvreli omi kavkasiaSi (1964 wlis maisi), rasac Sedegad mTeli regionis, maT Soris afxazeTis masobrivi eTnowmenda da genocidi mohyva; imperia frTxilad, magram gamokveTilad daadga kavkasiis, pirvel rigSi saqarTvelos rusifikaciis gzas (politikis am cvalebadobam ganapiroba ganaTlebuli qarTveli axalgazrda mRvdel­monazonis 1851 wels afxazeTSi movlinebac da SemdgomSi – 1868 wels misi aqedan gawvevac). meores mxriv, kvlav gamoiRviZa qarTulma erovnulma moZ­rao­bam; didi ilias meTaurobiT safuZveli Caeyara erovnul-gamaTa­vi­suf­lebe­li moZraobis axal etaps ena, mamuli, sarwmunoebisaTvis. episkoposi aleqsan­d­re (eriskacobaSi aleqsi daviTis Ze oqro­piriZe) am moZraobis uTval­saCinoesi warmomadgenelia. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT 1860-1861 w.w. gamoTqmul mosazrebebs qarTuli enis mniSvnelobisa da misi aRorZinebis aucileblobis Taobaze (gv. 85-86, 107-108), afxazeTSi moRvawe jer mxolod arqimandriti aleqsandre, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, iliaseuli erovnuli moZraobis winamorbedadac SeiZleba CaiTvalos. 1898 w. 17 maiss sionis sakaTedro ta­Zar­Si, sa­dac Tbilisis sazogadoebam gacileba mouwyo guria-samegrelos epis­koposad da­niS­nul mRvdelmTavars, didma iliam aseTi sityvebiT mimarTa episkopos aleqsandres – Tavis sulier moZRvars: „Tqvenis cxovrebis wmindaTa wmidad ori didi sagania: erTi RmerTi da meore Tqveni samSoblo qveyana. RmerTs RmrTisas aZlevdiT da qveyanas qveynisas da orTav emsaxurebodiT erTmaneTis dauklisad gulmxurvalebiT da siyvaruliT. erTi wuTic ar viciT Tqvenis sicocxlisa, rom cxovelmyofeli Suqi, am orives siyvarulisa ar mohfendes TviTeul Tqvens saqmes. aq TviTeuls Tqvens moqmedebas, qveyanas emsaxurebodiT mRvTisaTvis, RmerTs adidebdiT qveyni­saT­vis, radgan Rmer­Ti ars siyvaruli da siyvaruli mxsnelia qveynisa.

    Tqveni sicocxle mTeli da ganuyofeli saTnoebaaa“... (guria-samegre­los epis­ko­posi yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre. biografiuli da sxva we­ri­lebi. gamocemuli z. WiWinaZisagan. tfilisi, 1903, gv. 60-61).

    madlierma qarTulma sazogadoebam episkopos aleqsandres moRvaweobas mis si­cocxleSive misca maRali Sefaseba (cnobis furceli, 1879, 9 maisi; 1998, 5 aprili, 19, 20 maisi; mwyemsi, 1897, # 9-10, gv. 5-7 da a.S.). presaSi gamoqveynebuli werilebis umetesoba Tavmoyrilia krebulSi „guria-samegrelos episkoposi yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre“, romelic 1903 w. gamoaqveyna z. WiWinaZem. manve Sek­riba da calke wignad gamosca „sityvebi da werilebi yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandreze“. igi sasiqadulo mRvdelmTavris gardacvalebasTan dakavSi­rebiT gamoqveynebul werilebs, dakrZal­vaze warmoTqmul sityvebsa da sxva saintereso masalas Seicavs. z. WiWinaZis es ori krebuli amJamadac – maTi gamosvlidan erTi saukunis Semdeg – aleqsandre oqropiri­Zisadmi dRemde miZRvnili publikaciebis erTaderT Tu ara, ZiriTad wyarod mainc rCeba.

    didi sasuliero moRvawisa da eriskacis wminda saxeli sabWoTa period­Si TiTqmis miviwyebuli iyo. mokle cnoba ep. aleqsandres Sesaxeb (avtori b. lominaZe) moTavsebuli iyo qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis pirvel tomSi (Tb., 1975, gv. 291). igi ganmeorebulia enciklopediaSi „saqarTvelo“ (Tb., 1997, gv. 97). amgvar mokle cnobas ep. aleqsandres Sesaxeb Seicavs m. berZeniSvilis „masalebi XIX s. pirveli naxevris qarTuli sazogadoebis istoriisaTvis“. I (Tb., 1980, gv. 108-110). saintereso sagazeTo statiebi miuZRvna Tavis saxelovan Tanasoflels cxinvalis raionis sof. disevis skolis direqtorma da peda­gog­ma g. Tuxarelma (sabWoTa oseTi, 1981, 31 ivlisi; 1990, 20 aprili). aleq­san­dre oqropiriZis erovnul moRvaweobazea yuradReba gamaxvilebuli werilSi „kvali keTili“ („jvari vazisa“, 1982, #1, gv. 22-25). misi avtoria vaxuSti wun­deli; igi ueWvelad unda iyos vaxtang gurgeniZe, romelmac sxva sayuradRebo werilebic miuZRvna didi mamuliSvilis cxovrebas da moRvaweobas (wignis samyaro, 1982, 10 marti, #5; wminda mariamis wilxvedr qveyanaSi. wigni II Tb., 1997, gv. 69-85).

    aleqsandre oqropiriZis biografia gaSuqebulia werilebSi, romelTa avtorebi arian rem davidovi (ganaTleba, 1992, 6 noemberi), vaJa kiknaZe (iveria. qarTuli, kavkasiuri da evraziuri civilizaciebi. Semodgoma-zamTari, 1998-99, gv. 143-144), marine xaratiSvili (sapatriarqos uwyebani, 2002, #45, 8-14 noe­m­be­ri, gv. 7-11) da sxvebi (ix. agreTve „qarTvel wmindanTa cxovrebani“. Tbilisi-aTeni, 2006, gv. 254-257; sapatriarqos uwyebani, 2000, # 49, 16-22 dekemberi, gv. 8-9). aleqsandre oqropiriZis qvelmoqmedebas eZRvneba zaza abaSiZis „ganuwyveteli saTnoeba“ (fuZe, 2005, # 1, gv. 11). meufis Rvawli qar­Tu­li saeklesio galobis aRdgenis saqmeSi gaaSuqa ilia TavberiZem monog­rafiaSi:  „XIX s. qarTveli moRvaweebi da saeklesio galoba“ (Tb., 2005, 21-38.) da a. S.Ada a. S.

    aleqsandre oqropiriZis, rogorc mRvdelmTavrisa da eriskacis, Rvaw­lis sa­fuZvliani mecnieruli Seswavla, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT i. TavberiZis mono­g­ra­fias, samwuxarod, jer dawyebulic ar aris. Seuswavlelia misi TiTqmis 17-18 wli­a­ni moRvaweoba afxazeTSi, sadac man ganvlo gza bermonazonobidan episkoposobamde da Rrma kvali datova regionis sulier Tu saganmanaTleblo cxovrebaSi.  am mniSv­ne­lovan Temaze specialurad mxo­lod givi rogavas mcire moculobis gamokvlevaa gamoqveynebuli (g. rogava. episkoposi aleqsandre (oqropiriZe) da afxazeTi. – af­xa­ze­Tis moambe, 2000, # 4, gv. 35-37), romelSic ZiriTadi yuradReba afxazeTSi sa­su­liero ganaTlebis organizacias aqvs daTmobili. sainteresoa (Tumca sadavoc) mosaz­reba ilor­Si sasuliero saswavleblis arsebobis Sesaxeb. utyuar istoriul wyaros aseTi saswavleblis gaxsnisa da funqcionirebis Sesaxeb jerjerobiT ver mivakvlieT. vfiqrobT, is arc gaxsnila (ar arsebobs gadawyvetileba misi da­fuZ­nebis, debulebis, biujetisa da Statebis damtkicebis, moswavleTa miRebis, gauqmebisa an sxvagan gadatanis Sesaxeb da a.S.), magram aSkaraa, rom ilor­Si moswavleTa jgufi TiTqmis erTi weli mecadineobda sasuliero saswavleblis programiT da igi mzad iyo axladgaxsnili lixnis sasuliero saswavleblis meore kursze swavlis gasagrZeleblad (dok. #1).

    winamdebare krebulis mizania afxazeTSi aleqsandre oqropiriZis saganma­naTleblo, misioneruli saqmianobis, misi, rogorc mRvdelmTavris, moR­vaweobis dokumenturi gaSuqeba, regionTan Semdgomi kavSiris warmoCena, specialistebisaTvis adre ucnobi an naklebad cnobili wyaroebis gamom­zeu­reba.

    *    *    *

    aleqsandre oqropiriZe daibada 1824 wels goris mazris sof. disevSi (amJamad cxinvalis r-ni) imave soflis mRvdelis – daviT oqropiriZis ojaxSi. sxva mona­cemebiT, igi 1822 wels aris dabadebuli (z.WiWinaZe. sityvebi da werilebi, gv. 119; v. gurgeniZe. wm. mariamis wilxvedr qveyanaSi. wigni II, gv. 72). 1859 wels Sedgenil da 1862 wels Sevsebul formuliarSi (dok. #21) jer (e.i. 1859 wels) miTiTebuli iyo asaki – 44 weli, SemdgomSi (e. i. 1862 wels) – 47 weli, rac, vfiqrobT, Secdomaa. vi­nai­dan ep. aleqsandres sicocxleSi gamoqveynebul mravalricxovan saiubileo weri­lebSi, aseve gardacvalebasTan dakavSirebul publikaciebSi yvelgan 1824 welia dafiqsirebuli  (z. WiWinaZe, guria-samegrelos episkop... gv. 7, 12, 14, 23; z. WiWinaZe. sityvebi da werilebi, gv. 1, 48, 76), am ukanasknel versias ufro vemxrobiT. yvelaze utyuari unda iyos saflavis qvaze miTiTebuli TariRi – 1822 weli – avt.) goris sasuliero saswavleblis damTavrebis (1839 weli) Semdeg swavla Tbilisis sasu­liero seminariaSi gaagrZela da 1845 wels daasrula. formuliaris mixedviT, 1845 wlis 8 iv­liss Tbilisis fericvalebis monasterSi berad aRikveca. 1846-1850 wlebSi aleqsandre oqropiriZe yazanis sasuliero akademiis studentia; 1849 wlis 9 oqtombers mRvdelmonazonis xarisxSi aiyvanes. akademia damTavrebul aleq­sandres 1850 wlis 6 oqtombers RvTismetyvelebis kandidatis xarisxi mieniWa. 1851 wlis 15 Tebervlidan saswavlo wlis bolomde Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis dabal ganyofilebaze biblias, laTinur enas, marTlmadideblur sarwmunoebas aswavlida, xolo umaRles ganyofilebaze – zneobriv RvTis­met­y­­velebas da arqeologias. sasu­liero xelisufleba mas afxazeTSi samoRva­weod amzadebda; 1851 wlis 15 aprils aleqsandre oqro­piriZe jer ararsebuli afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis zedamxed­velad (direqtorad) da adgi­lobrivi episkoposis amalaSi mRvdelmonazonad dainiSna. afxazeTis sasu­lie­ro saswavleblis dafuZnebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba ki uwmindesma sinodma 1851 wlis 30 maiss miiRo (dok.#43). misi zedamxedvelisaTvis calke xelfasi gaTvaliswinebuli ar yofila. Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi miRebuli praqtikuli gamocdilebis ufro gamdidrebis mizniT, aleqsandre oqropiriZe droebiT quTaisis sasuliero saswavleblis inspeqtorad da umaRlesi gan­yofilebis maswavleblad iniSneba. am Tanamdebobaze is 1851 w. 28 ivlisidan 28 seqtembramde imyofeboda. quTaisidan aleqsandre oqropiriZe gadavida afxazeTSi da sakuTari mova­leo­bis – saeparqio kaTedris mRvdel­mo­na­zo­nisa da sasuliero saswav­leb­lis zedamxedvelis – Sesrulebas Seudga. Tu gaviTva­lis­winebT, rom ilorSi afxazTa bavSve­bi­saT­vis skolis mowyobis pirveli mcde­lobisas gamoCenili gul­mod­gi­nebisaTvis  aleqsandre oqropiriZe 1852 wlis 18 maiss samxreuliT (набедренник) dajil­dovda, sruli safuZveli gvaqvs vivaraudoT, rom Tavidan igi ara soxumSi an lixnSi, sadac unda gaxsniliyo sasuliero saswavlebeli, aramed ilorSi moRva­weobda. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom ar Seesabameba sinamdviles mtkiceba samxareuliT aleqsandres 1851 w. 8 maiss (z. WiWinaZe. guria-samegrelos episkoposi, gv. 24; misive si­tyvebi da werilebi, gv. 77), miTumetes 1853 w. 8 maiss dajildoebis Sesaxeb (g. rogava. dasax. naSromi, gv. 35).

    arsaidan Cans ilorSi sasuliero saswavleblis arseboba, rogorc wers g. rogava da werdnen didi xniT adrec (z. WiWinaZe. guria-samegrelos episko­po­si, gv. 12). formuliaris mixedviT, ilorSi aleqsandre oqropiriZem gamoiCina «усердие при первом опыте заведения школ для абхазских детей» (dok. # 21) da ara sasuliero sas­wavleb­lis daarsebaSi. rogorc cnobilia, imperatoris 1851 wlis 15 aprilis brZa­ne­buleba afxazeTis kaTedris dafuZnebis Sesaxeb, iTvaliswinebda mis ganTavsebas biWvinTaSi; iqve unda gaxsniliyo sasuliero saswavlebelic. uwmindes sinodSi jer kidev 1850 wlis bolos iyo msjeloba imis Taobaze, rom sasuliero saswavlebeli gaexsnaT ara biWvinTaSi (vinaidan irgvliv ar iyo mosaxleoba, rac Seqmnida moswavleTa dabinavebis problemas), aramed lixnSi, sadac 700 ojaxi cxovrobda; saswavlebelSi ZiriTadad iqauri bavSvebi ivlidnen da binebiT uzrunvelyofa sa­Wiro ar iqneboda (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1, s. 15555, f. 35-39). 1851 wlis 30 maisis brZa­ne­buleba sasuliero saswav­leb­lis lixnSi gaxsnas iTvaliswinebda. sxvagan misi gadatana aravis ufiqria. maSin ilorSi ra skolaze SeiZleba iyos saubari? unda vivaraudoT, rom 1851 wlis Semodgomaze afxazeTSi Camosuli sasuliero saswav­leb­lis zedamxed­ve­li lixnSi mis realurad dafuZnebamde sakuTari xarjebiT ilorSi awyobs mosamzadebel, sacdel skolas da TviTonve aswavlis bavSvebs momavali sas­wav­leblis programiT. droebiTi skolis ilorSi da ara sxvagan mowyobac lo­giku­rad Zneli asaxsneli ar aris. es iyo upiratesad qarTvelebiT dasax­le­bu­li, admini­st­raciulad  samurzayanos saboqauloSi, Sesabamisad, quTai­sis guberniaSi Semavali punqti (usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT amas didi mniSvneloba hqonda), Tanac eTnikur afxazebTan siaxloves; iloris wm. giorgis eklesias, romlis teritoriazec droe­biTi skola unda yofiliyo gaxsnili, afxazobac mowiwebiT epyroboda; finansuri SesaZleblobebic mas sxva eklesiebze ukeTesi hqonda. iloris wm. giorgis eklesiaSi msaxurobdnen im droisaTvis ganaTlebuli sasuliero pirebi. 1836 wlidan 1850/51 wlamde iloris taZars cnobili misioneri, ambrosi xelaias meuRlis babua roman merWvile ganagebda (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1, s. 15555, f. 9); misi gardacvalebis Sem­deg, Cve­ni monacemebiT, eklesia daviT xelaiam – ambrosi xelaias babuam Cai­bara. vfiqrobT, yo­ve­live amis gaTvaliswinebiT gadawyda mosamzadebeli skolis droebiT (sasu­liero saswavleblis amoqmedebamde) ilorSi gaxsna.

    sasuliero saswavlebeli lixnSi 1852 wlis 25 seqtembridan amoqmedda (dok. #1); gaixsna mxolod pirveli klasi. afxazeTis episkoposi germane saqarTvelos egzarqos isidores 1852 wlis 27 seqtembers acnobebda, rom Tu iloreli bavSvebi („romelTac SarSan aswavlidnen da romelTa meore klasSi gadayvana ukve SeiZleba, rogorc momzadebulebisa“) sakuTari saxsrebiT moisurvebdnen lixnSi swavlis gagr­Zelebas (vinaidan maTTvis ar iyo Tanxebi asignebuli), maSin meore klasis dakom­pleq­tebac moxdeboda (dok. #1). episkoposis sityvebi adastureben, rom ilorSi moq­me­debda ara sasuliero saswav­lebeli, aramed araoficialuri, droebiTi mosam­za­debeli skola, romelsac, albaT, misi xelmZRvaneli aleqsandre oqropiriZe da adgilob­rivi eklesia afinansebdnen. cxadia, es sulac ar akninebs arc skolis mniSv­ne­­lo­bas da arc mis organizatorTa did damsaxurebas afxazeTSi ganaT­lebis keris dafuZnebis saqmeSi.

    axladgaxsnil sasuliero skolas lixnSi mTavarma mixeil ServaSiZem gadasca erTi sax­li 40 moswavleze da kidev ori – episkoposisa da adgilob­ri­vi eklesiis  kre­bulisaT­vis. episkoposma germanem misTvis gankuTvnili saxlis naxevari sasulie­ro saswavleblis zedamxedvels dauTmo.

    mRvdelmonazon aleqsandre oqropiriZis mier osuri sasuliero komi­siis kance­lariaSi 1853 w. 27 ianvars warmodgenili monacemebis mixedviT, af­xa­zeTis sasuliero saswavlebelSi 11 bavSvi swavlobda; SemdgomSi maTi ricxvi ocamde gaizarda (dok. ##3, 43). sasuliero saswavlebels mzrunve­lobas ar aklebda afxazeTis mTavari (dok. #5). aleqsandre oqropiriZem ki saswavleb­lis sasargeblod gaRebuli Semowiru­lo­bebisaTvis 1853 w. 7 Tebervals uwmin­desi sinodis kurTxeva miiRo  (dok. #21).

    1853 wlis 21 maiss egzarqosis kancelariam mRvdelmonazon aleqsandres saxel­mZRvanelod uwmindesi sinodis mier damtkicebuli afxazeTis sasu­lie­ro saswavleb­lis instruqcia gaugzavna (dok. #16). instruqciis mixedviT, saswavlebeli gankuTv­nili iyo afxazeTis sasuliero pirebisa da adgi­lob­rivi mkvidri mosaxleobis (тузем­цы) yvela fenis Svilebis swavla-aRzr­di­saTvis; saswavlebeli oTxklasiani gax­l­daT; zedamxedvels niSnavda uwmindesi sinodi egzarqosis wardginebiT; sauke­Te­so moswavleebs, mSobelTa survilis SemTxvevaSi, swavlis gagrZeleba SeeZloT Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi, Tu mefisnacvali maT Sesanax Tanxas gaiRebda. af­xa­zeTis sasulie­ro saswavlebelSi iswavleboda sjulis kanoni, rusuli ena, qarTuli ena (samoqalaqo da saeklesio), sufTa wera rusulad da qarTulad, ariT­me­tika, rusuli gramatika, qarTuli gramatika, galoba, geografia, praqtikuli mecadi­neoba afxazur enaSi (csia, 488, aRw. 1, s. 15555, f. 22, 29-30, 128-130).

    aleqsandre oqropiriZem sasuliero saswavleblis saxelmZRvaneloe­biT momara­gebisTvisac izruna (dok. #7). 1853 wlis aprilSi saegzarqosom lixnis saswavleblis aRsazrdelTaTvis 725 man. gamoyo. am Tanxis mcire nawili (12 man. da 54 kap.) saxelmZ­Rva­neloebis SesaZenad daixarja, danarCeni ki bankSi iqna Senaxuli, vinaidan, ro­gorc mRvdelmonazoni aleqsandre 1854 w. 25 maiss egzarqoss werda, moswavleTa saxelmwifo kmayofaze ayvana mxolod 1854 wlidan gadawyda (dok.  #8). saWiro da aucilebeli xarjebi sasuliero sas­wav­leblis zedamxedvelma sakuTari Tanxebidan gaswia.

    yirimis omma (1853-1856 w.w.) mkveTrad Secvala viTareba afxazeTSi, afsua­Ta mniSvnelovani nawili TurqeTs miemxro. ruseTi iZulebuli gaxda 1854 wlis mart-aprilSi afxazeTidan jari gaeyvana. imave wlis 25 maisis werilSi egzarqosisadmi aleqsandre oqropiriZe aRniSnavda, rom „SeuZle­beli iyo souksuSi (lixnSi – j. g.) gaCereba politikuri gadatrialebebisa da im safrTxis gamo, romelic Seeqmna souksus CerqezTa mxridan, amitom gadavwyvite mimdinare welsac ar damexarja xazinis fuli... TviTon sakuTari angariSiT momemaragebina moswavleebi friad aucilebeli nivTebiT, rogo­ricaa kalami, qaRaldi da melani; erT Rarib moswavles sakuTari saxs­re­biT vi­naxavdi, xolo or xelmokle moswavles Cemive fuliT zeda tansacmeli SevuZine“. werilSi naTqvamia, rom garda bankSi Setanili 700 maneTisa, gadarCa SeZenili  saxelmZRvaneloebi. rac Seexeba  saswavleblis kuTvnil avejs, igi „mitanilia Sesanaxad souk-sus eklesiis ezoSi da datovebulia RmerTis anabara“ (dok. #8).

    1854 wlis 13 maisidan 1855 wlis 26 ianvramde, roca afxazeTis sasulie­ro saswavlebeli ar funqcionirebda, aleqsandre oqropiriZe Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis gamgeobis gankargulebiT, romelic egzarqosma daamtkica, asrulebda quTaisis sasuliero saswavleblis zedamxedvelisa da umaRlesi ganyofilebis maswavleblis movaleobas (dok.  #21); erTdroulad iyo gelaTis monastris droebiTi winamZRvaric (z. WiWinaZe. guria-samegrelos episkoposi... gv. 13). 1855 wlis 12 Tebervlis brZanebulebiT uwmindesma sinodma mRvdelmonazoni aleqsandre afxazeTis saepiskoposo kaTedris iRumenis xarisxSi aiyvana (dok. #21).

    1855 w. 31 ianvars afxazeTis episkoposi germane egzarqos isidores acnobebda, rom im afxazebs da sasuliero pirebs, romelTa Svilebi iric­xebodnen lixnis saswavlebelSi, surdaT swavlis ganaxleba. vinaidan iRumeni aleqsandrec ukve Tavisufalia quTaisis saswavleblis gamgeobisagan, werda episkoposi, – «прошу Ваше преосвященство открыть училище, где окажется удобнее и для сего приказать кому следует прислать на первый раз 9 рублей серебром» (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1, s. 15555, f. 90). episkopos ger­manes ufro mizanSewonilad miaCnda saswavleblis afxazeTis mTavris adgilsamyofelTan axlos gaxsna; 1855 w. 23 Tebervlis werilSi ki egzarqoss afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnas sami adgilidan erTSi sTxovda: samurzayanos sazRvarTan, sadac mTavari imyofeboda (s. WkaduaSi), martvilis monasterSi, an xonSi (iqve, f. 91), sadac afxazeTis episkoposs eklesiasTan axlos sakuTari saxli hqonda.

    1855 wlis 13 aprilis werilSi ep. germane egzarqoss afxazeTis sasu­liero saswavleblis dakompleqtebasTan dakavSirebuli siZneleebis Sesaxeb atyobinebda. rac Seexeba im moswavleebs, romlebsac iRumen aleqsandresTan unda eswavlaT, werda afxazeTis episkoposi, darwmunebuli viyavi, rom dasawyisSive aranakleb xuTi (warmoSobiT) afxazi Camovidoda, maT Soris 2 sasuliero wodebis da  sami – saero. es ukanasknelebi amJamad afxazeTis mTav­rinasTan imyofebian; amis Semdeg ramdenime moswavlis Camoyvana SeeZloT im afxazebs, romlebmac aRniSnulis Sesaxeb mTxoves; magram bolo dros amis Tavdebad ver davdgebi, vinaidan afxazebs zafxulSi Svilebis TavisTan yola urCevniaT (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1 m s. 15555, f. 92), acxadebda ep. germane.

    1855 wlis 27 aprils iRumeni aleqsandre Cavida mixeil ServaSiZesTan, romelic Tavisi simamris – giorgi dadianis saxlSi (sof. WkaduaSSi, xan kur­zuSi) imyofeboda. mTavarma mas aRsazrdelad taxtis memkvidre – 9 wlis giorgi miabara (dok. #10). im droisaTvis egzarqoss, afxazeTis episkopos germanes winadadebiT, ukve hqonda miRebuli gadawyvetileba xonSi (ep. ger­manes saxlSi) afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis aRdgenis Sesaxeb (dok. #9). Seqmnil viTarebaSi, roca iRumeni aleqsandre sof. WkaduaSSi taxtis memkvidris aRzrdiT iyo dakavebuli, egzarqosis gadawyvetilebis Sesru­leba SeuZlebeli iyo. iRumen aleqsandres winadadebiTa (romelic mixeil ServaSiZesTan iyo SeTanxmebuli) da episkopos germanes TxovniT egzarqosma gadawyvetileba Secvala – afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis aRdgena WkaduaSSi gadawyda (dok. #10-11). mokle droSi moxerxda moswavleTa nawilis Sekreba da saswavleblis funqcionirebis ganaxleba. 1855 w. 30 ivliss egzarqosi isidore mefisnacval n. muraviovs (1854-1856 w.w.) acnobebda, rom imave wlis 1 ivliss afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis zedamxedveli, iRumeni aleqsandre «в донесении о состоянии училища очень хвалит обучяающе­гося у него вместе с 6-ю абхазскими детьми сына владетеля» (j. gamaxaria. afxazeTi da marTlmadidebloba. Tb., 2005, gv. 421)). saswavleblis funqcionirebasTan da bavSvebis SenaxvasTan dakavSirebuli mTeli xarjebi omis damTavrebamde aleqsandre oqropiriZem Tavis Tavze aiRo, xolo saswavleblisaTvis egzarqosis mier 1855 w. 21 ivliss gamoyofili 500 maneTi ki Sesanaxad quTaisis xazinas Caabara. 1855 w. 2 agvistos iRumenma aleqsandrem egzarqoss acnoba, rom gamoyofili 500 maneTi miiRo «и передал на хранение с прежни­ми билетами в Кутаиское казначейство в особом  сундуке за собственною печатью» (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1, s. 15555, f. 99, 100).

    afxazeTis aRdgenili sasuliero saswavlebeli sul ramdenime Tve funq­cionirebda. mas Semdeg, rac Turqebma omer-faSas sardlobiT 1855 wlis oqtomberSi samegrelo daikaves, saswavlebelic droebiT daixura. 1856 w. 4 ianvars mefisnacvlis kancelariaSi Sevida egzarqosis werili TxovniT mimdinare wels afxazeTis kaTedrisaTvis 1250 maneTis gamoyofis Sesaxeb. imave wlis 30 ianvris sapasuxo werilSi kancelariam afxazeTis episkoposisa da saswavleblis adgilsamyofelis Sesaxeb informacia moiTxova; mefis­nac­va­lis kancelariaSi wardgenili informaciis mixedviT, ep. germane xonSi imyofeboda, sasuliero saswavlebeli ki mtris mier afxazeTis dakavebis Sem­deg gadavidao samegrelos sofel qvaSxorSi, „sadac saswavleblis zedamxed­veli iRumeni aleqsandre Tavad elizbar dadianis saxlSi afxazeTis mTavris – SarvaSiZis SvilTan erTad afxazeTis mcxovrebTa eqvs bavSvs aswavlida. mtris mier samegrelos dakavebis Semdeg ganzraxuli iyo saswavleblis xonSi gadatana, magram xeli SeuSala im mxareSi  arsebulma areulobam da swavleba wesrigis aRdgenamde droebiT Sewyvetilia“ (dok. #12).

    1856 wlis 20 martis werilSi egzarqosisadmi mefisnacvlis kancelaria (we­rils xels awerda dimitri yifiani) iTxovda damatebiT informacias „mefis­nacv­lisaTvis moxsenebis warsadgenad: saxeldobr, ramdeni moswavle iyo gasul 1855 wels afxazeTis sasuliero saswavlebelSi, ramdeni darCa naSTi saswavleblis Sesanaxad gasul wels asignebuli Tanxebidan da xom ar migaCniaT SesaZleblad am naSTiT daifaros xarji, romelic saWiroa mimdinare wels afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblisaTvis, sadac saxezea mxolod 7 moswavle, nacvlad 30-sa, romelTa sarCenad kavkasiaSi mefisnacvlis Tanxebidan yovelwliurad Tqvens gankargulebaSi 1525 man. iricxeba“. mefisnacvalma, miiRo ra moTxovnili informacia (dok. #13), gadawyvita 1856 wels daafinansos mxolod afxazeTis saepiskoposo kaTedra; rac Seexeba sasuliero saswavlebels misTvis saxsrebis gamoyofa gaurkveveli vadiT gadaido (koment. 15).

    roca egzarqossa da mefisnacvlis kancelarias Soris es biurokratiuli mimowera  mimdinareobda, afxazeTi ukve  Turqebisagan ganTavisuflebuli iyo (1856 w. Tebervali); xelisuflebis Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleboda saswavleblis aRdgena, Tundac wina wlebSi gadmoricxuli da aleqsandre oqropiriZis mier dazogili TanxiT, romlis moculoba 4526 maneTs Sead­genda (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1, s. 15555, f. 107-110). miuxedavad amisa, 1856 wels afxa­ze­Tis sasuliero saswavleblisaTvis arc fuli gadaricxula da arc gan­karguleba gacemula dazogili TanxebiT misi funqcio­ni­rebis ganaxlebis Se­saxeb. es ki aRniSnuli sakiTxisadmi xelisuflebis gulgril damokidebu­le­baze miuTiTebda.

    yirimis omis damTavrebisTanave aleqsandre oqropiriZe danarCen samRvde­loe­basTan erTad afxazeTSi dabrunda. igi uwmindesi sinodis 1856 w. 26 Tebervlis gankargulebiT sevastopolis damcvelTa sasargeblod gaRebuli Semowiru­lobe­bi­saTvis arqimandritis xarisxSi iqna ayvanili. imave wlis 31 agvistos ki umaRlesad orgzis madloba gamoecxada sevastopolis damcve­lebis usaxlkarod darCenili ojaxebisaTvis yirimis omis damTavrebamde yovelwliurad oras-orasi maneTis Semowirulobis gaRebisaTvis (dok. #21).

    afxazeTis episkoposma germanem 1856 w. 2 seqtembers imereTis episkopo­sis Tanam­deboba daikava. imave wlis 20 oqtombridan 1858 w. 1 ianvramde afxazeTis eparqias arqi­mandriti aleqsandre oqropiriZe marTavda. axali episkoposi geronti (papi­taSvili), romelic 1857 w. 7 oqtombers iqna xeldasxmuli, afxazeTSi didxans ar dar­Cenila, – 1859 w. 16 noembers sameg­re­los episkoposad dainiSna da martvilSi gadavida. momdevno ori wlis ganmavlobaSi is erTdroulad afxazeTis eparqiasac marTavda, magram faqtiu­ri mmarTveli iyo arqimandriti aleqsandre – 1859 w. 2 maisidan wm. anas III xarisxis ordenis kavaleri.

    misioneruli saqmianobis warmarTvis TvalsazrisiT, uaRresad araxel­sayreli aRmoCnda yirimis omis Semdgomi periodi, roca afxazTa nawili musulmanobas daubrunda da nel-nela iwyeboda muhajirobis procesi. uaryofiTad moqmedebda afxazTa religiur ganwyobaze CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ruseTis winaaRmdeg miuridizmis droSiT mimdinare sisxlismRvreli brZolebi. am viTarebaSi afxazeTis saepiskoposo kaTedris arqimandritma aleqsandrem werilobiT Camoayaliba „mosazreba afxazeTSi qristianobis gavrcelebisa da qristianobis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli mizezebis Sesaxeb“ (dok. #14). es unikaluri dokumenti sruli saxiT pirvelad Semodis mecnierul mimoqcevaSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom saarqivo saqme, romelSic is aris daculi, arasworadaa formirebulic da daTariRebulic. saqmeSi xelnaweris jer meore (B) nawilia Cakruli, Semdeg ki – pirveli (A). albaT, amis gamo arqivis TanamSromlebma yuradReba ver miaqcies SuaSi moqceul bolo furcels (romelic amave dros dazianebulia da Zalian Znelad ikiTxeba) TariRis fragmentis miTiTebiT, aseve xelmoweriT da dokumenti momijnave masalebis (dok.##28, 29) mixedviT 1863 wliT daaTariRes. am garemoebam adre Cvenc Segviyvana SecdomaSi (ix. j. gamaxaria. afxazeTi da marTlmadidebloba, gv. 439). bolo furcelze ikiTxeba xelmowera da TariRi: «Архимандрит Абхазской Архиерейской кафедры Александр. О-го года 18-го мая». sruliad aSkaraa, rom dokumenti 1960 wlis 18 maisiT (aleqsandre arqimandriti iyo 1856-1862 w.w.) unda daTariRdes. amas adasturebs aleqsandre oqropiriZis mier saqarT­velos egzarqosisaTvis 1860 w. 27 dekembers gagzavnili moxsenebac  (dok. #15).

    aleqsandre oqropiriZis „mosazreba“-s aqvs mokle Sesavali, sadac avtori saubrobs Semoqmedis didebisa da sakuTari netarebisTvis Seqmnili adamianis cxovrebis mizanze: «следовать гласу совести и гласу евангельскому». vinc sindisis xmas da saxarebas ar misdevs, saboloo jamSi yovelgvari ubedurebis msxverplad iqceva; amitom sindisisa da RvTiuri kanonebiT mcxovrebma adamianebma sxvebs – Tavis msgavsT (подобным себе) – unda uCvenon swori gza. amis safuZvelze, – wers arqimendriti aleqsandre, – ufleba gvaqvs sinanuliT SevxedoT Cvens mezoblebs – afxazebs, mivuTiToT maT qristianobis gavrce­le­bis saqmeSi xelisSemwyob da xelisSemSlel mizezebze.

    dokumentis pirvel –A nawilSi swored xelSemwyob faqtorebzea sauba­ri. pirve­li aseTi faqtori iyo eparqiis xelmZRvanelis keTili damokide­buleba mTavarTan, vinaidan „rac mze aris dedamiwisaTvis, isaa mTavari afxazeTisaTvis“. arqimandrit aleqsandres miaCnda, rom afxazeTis mTavris mxardaWeris gareSe sasuliero xelisuflebis arc erTi wamowyeba sasurvel Sedegs ver gamoiRebda.

    warmatebis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani sawindari, arqimandritis azriT, misio­nerisaTvis afxazuri da qarTuli enebis codna gaxldaT; amasTan, av­to­ri ZiriTad yuradRebas qarTuli enis mniSvnelobaze amaxvilebda, vinaidan. jer-erTi, igi iyo istoriulad da aris amJamadac RvTismsaxurebis ena afxazeTSi; meorec, rogorc damwerlobis mqone ena, qarTuli xmarebaSia ara mxo­lod afxazeTSi, aramed mTels SavizRvispireTSi, TurqeTis Semadgen­lo­baSi myofi trapizonidan da baTumidan dawyebuli, vidre ruseTis sazRv­ram­de – anapamde da novorosiiskamde (ai, sad daufiqsira sazRvari ruseTs aleqsandre oqropiriZem); mesamec, qarTuli metnaklebad ician afxazebma, gansakuTrebiT Tavadaznaurobam, mTavris ojaxi ki „sufTad da Tandayo­lilad flobs qarTul samoqalaqo da saeklesio enas da rusuls srulebiTac ara; saerTod, yvela ServaSiZis ojaxi metyvelebs, kiTxulobs da wers qarTulad; qarTvelebs, rogorc mezoblebs, met pativs scemen afxazeTSi, vidre sxva xalxebs da qarTvelTa enac ufro pativSia afxazTa Soris. qarTuli igivea afxazeTSi  rac franguli evropaSi“, amitom afxazeTSi moRvawe yvela misio­nerma unda icodes es ena, – askv­nis aleqsandre oqropiriZe da acxadebs: „gaivlis as­wleulebi da qar­Tu­li enis dideba ar Caqreba (не померкнет) afxazeTSi“.

    dokumentis pirveli nawilis mesame paragrafSi avtori saubrobs imaze, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba eqneba afxazeTSi qristianobis warmatebiT gasavr­celeblad mRvdelmTavris gulmodgine mociqulebriv RvTismsaxu­rebas, mis brwyinvalebas; amis misaRwevad ki aucilebeli iyo garemocva (свита), mgalo­belTa gundi, mdidruli samosi da agreTve mRvdelmTavrisaTvis, zogadad, samRvdeloebisaTvis cxovrebis kargi pirobebis Seqmna.

    meoTxe paragrafi „mosazrebisa“ afxazeTSi sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnis Temas eZRvneba. 1855 wels afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis daxur­vis Semdeg aleqsandre oqropiriZe periodulad svamda am sakiTxs, magram yvela misi Zalisxmeva (magaliTad, 1858 wels) uSedego aRmoCnda. man amjeradac scada xelisuflebis yuradRebis mipyroba aRniSnuli prob­lemi­sadmi. afxa­zeTis sasuliero saswav­lebelSi, werda aleqsandre oqropiriZe, afxazTa bavSvebi Seiswavlidnen qarTul da afxazur enebs, daeuflebodnen am enebze arsebul sasuliero literaturas; saswavlebels „eqneba sasikeTo gavlena afxazTa bavSvebze gonebrivi da zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT, saswavle­bel­Si miRebuli kargi aRzrdisa da mimarTulebis pirobebSi bavSvebi iqne­bian friad sasargebloni sakuTari samSoblosaTvis“, – aseTi iyo arqimandrit aleqsandres mosazreba.

    mexuTe paragrafSi avtori afxazeTSi eklesiebisa da samrevloebis rao­denobis gazrdis aucileblobas asabuTebs, meeqvseSi ki – uZvelesi saeklesio centrebis – anakofiis (fsircxis), drandisa da moqvis taZrebis  ganaxlebis sakiTxs ayenebs, rac „iqneboda friad sasargeblo da udides gavlenas moaxdenda afxazTa gonebaze da gulebze“.

    kidev or paragrafSi aleqsandre oqropiriZe samRvdeloebis materia­lu­ri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebaze da agreTve misionerul saqmiano­ba­Si Ta­vadaznaurobis monawileobis Sesaxeb saubrobs.

    ramdenime paragrafisagan Sesdgeba aseve „mosazrebis“ B (meore) nawili – „ra uSlis xels qristianobis gavrcelebas afxazeTSi?“

    pirvel xelisSemSlel faqtorad aleqsandre oqropiriZe afxazuri damwer­lo­bisa da, Sesabamisad, am enaze literaturis ararsebobas asaxelebs, meore – afxazeTis geografiul mdebareobas. mezobeli qveynebidan da regio­nebidan afxazeTSi ver Semodioda qristianoba, radganac Crdilo-aRmo­sav­le­Tidan mas uSualod warmarTebi da musulmanebi esazRvrebodnen,  Savi zRvis mxridan modioda Turquli gavlena; samegrelos mxridanac qristia­nuli moZRvrebis sxivebi Zlivs aRwevdnen afxazeTSi, vinaidan samurzayano ar iyo jerovnad gaqristianebuli, – werda aleqsandre oqropi­ri­Ze. am viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT aucilebloba moiTxovda afxazeTis SigniT  misioneruli muSaobis  gaaqtiurebas mTavrisa da mRvdelmTavris xelSewyobiT; „amasTanave misionerebi, Tavis mxriv, afxazeTis mimarT siyvarulisa da siqvelis grZ­no­biT unda iyvnen gamsWvalulni“, – Tvlida arqimendriti aleqsandre.

    „mosazrebis“ meore nawilis mesame paragrafSi samRvdeloebis raode­no­bis gaormagebis sakiTxia dayenebuli rvis nacvlad Teqvsmeti unda gamx­dariyo. meoTxe paragrafSi   naCvenebia afxazeTSi arsebuli Turquli d­a­sax­le­bebis – gudava, oCamCire, kelasuri da gudauTa saqmianoba musulma­no­bis gavrcelebis mizniT;  es saqmianoba ki xels uSlida marTlmadidebel misio­nerebs warmatebis miRwevaSi. mexuTe paragrafSi saubaria musulman afxazTa Soris damkvidrebul wes-Cveulebaze, romlis Tanaxmad gavleniani Tavadis gardacvalebisas ramdenime ymawvils glexTa wridan gaanTavisuf­leb­d­nen batonymuri valdebulebebisagan da aRsazrdelad Turqebs miabareb­dnen. SemdgomSi maTi rigebidan gamodiodnen molebi, romelTac gardacv­lili batonis sulis mosaxsenieblad mahmadianuri wesiT locva evalebodaT. am gziT xdeboda molebis gamravleba afxazeTSi da musulmanobis sul ufro farTod gavrceleba. igive xerxs afxazeTis episkoposma gerontimac (papi­taS­vili) mimarTa. afxaz ymawvilebs is samegre­los eklesia-monastrebSi (caiSsa da martvilSi) agzavnida. maTi rigebidan gamodiodnen sasuliero pirebi, romelTa movaleobas gardacvlili qristiani batonis sulis mosaxseniebeli marTl­madi­deb­lu­ri wesiT locva warmoadgenda. am mizniT  aRzrdilTagan yvelaze metad cnobi­lia mRvdeli ioane gegia. aleqsandre oqropiriZe aRniS­navs, rom man Tavadac mimarTa amgvar wess da erTi afxazi ymawvili caiSSi miavlina sasuliero ganaTlebis misaRebad.

    qristianobis gavrcelebas – wers arqimandriti aleqsandre meeqvse parag­ra­fSi, – xels uSlida yirimis omis periodSi bevri Tavadis mier marTlmadi­deb­lobis uaryofa da musulmanur sarwmunoebaze gadasvla; qristianobi­saTvis Zalian saziano iyo musulman mamakacebze marTlmadidebluri aRmsareblobis qaliSvilebis gaTxovebisa da am ukanasknelTa mxridan sarwmu­noe­bis Secvlis tradicia. es wes-Cveuleba „Zalian sazianoa afxazuri qris­tia­nuli samyarosaTvis“, – acxadebs aleqsandre oqropiriZe meSvide parag­raf­Si.

    bolo, merve paragrafSi avtori aRniSnavs, rom „afxazuri qristianuli  samyarosaTvis Zalian sazianoa aseve Tavadaznaurobis (garda ServaSiZeebisa) masobrivi gamusulmaneba“. es exebodaT marSaniebs webeldidan da gufidan, anCabaZeebs – Wloudan, marRaniebs – anakofiidan, inalifebs biWvinTidan da a.S. musulman afxaz Tavadebs hyavdaT molebi; batonebs qveSevrdomebic baZavdnen.

    dokumentis daskvniT nawilSi arqimandriti aleqsandre ufals Ses­Txovs mfarvelobas da daxmarebas. „sabralo afxazeTo! – wers igi dasas­ruls, – konstan­tinepolis mxridan, agreTve yirimisa da  yaraCais mxridan, zRvisa da xmeleTis  mxridan TurqeTma Semusra Seni zneobrivi normebi da Seni bednie­rebis varskvlavi Caqra. evedre zecas, daicavi Seni qristianoba, raTa isev amobrwyindes bednierebis varskvlavi da kvlav dabrundes Seni oqros xana.

    sabralo afxazeTo! Tavad mimarTe RmerTs mowodebiT, rom man Segiwya­los Sen da giboZos TayvaniscemisaTvis Tavisi mxsneli cxovelmyofe­li jva­ri, romelSic SegeZlo dagenaxa gadarCenis saidumlo“. ase moZRvravs aleq­sandre afxazeTs, romelic gulwrfelad Seiyvara da romlis oqros xanis dabrunebaze ocnebobda.

    dokumentis – „mosazreba afxazeTSi qristianobis gavrcelebisa da qristianobis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli mizezebis Sesaxeb“ – safuZvelze unda iyos Seqmnili jerjerobiT CvenTvis ucnobi afxazeTSi qristianobis gavrcelebis sistematuri proeqti, romelic arqimandritma aleqsandrem Tavdapirvelad afxazeTSi jarebis ufross, xolo 1860 wlis 27 dekembers egzarqoss warudgina (dok. #15). Cveni azriT, es proeqti udevs safuZvlad dokumentebs „quTaisis general gubernatori afxazeTSi qristianobis mdgomareobisa da misi aRdgenisaTvis saWiro zomebis Sesaxeb“ (dok. #16) da „arqimandrit aleqsandres Sefasebis asli afxazeTSi qristianobis mdgoma­reobis Sesaxeb“ (dok. #18).

    1861 wlis 29 ivlisiT aris daTariRebuli tyvarCelSi dasasveneblad myofi aleqsandre oqropiriZis Canawerebi saqarTvelos istoriuli kuT­xeebis, CrdiloeT kavkasiisa da ruseTis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania misi mosazrebebi da mowodebebi qarTuli enis aRorZinebis, qarTvelTa saerTo ZalisxmeviT misi ganvrcobisa da ganmtkicebis auci­leb­lobis Sesaxeb (dok. #17). am Canawerebis saerTo saTauria afxazuri sityva „Jvabzei ambavi“. dokumentis boloSi miwerilia kvlav afxazuri sityva – „aafseiT – daviRale“.

    aleqsandre oqropiriZis mier 1860-1861 wlebSi Seqmnili dokumente­bidan ikveTeba ruseTis imperiis batonobis, qarTuli saxelmwifosa da avto­kefaluri eklesiis ararsebobis, 60-wliani wyvdiadis pirobebSi movlenili axali tipis ganaTlebuli da gamocdili qarTveli sasuliero mo­Rva­wis, samSoblosa da mSobliuri enis bedze dafiqrebuli eriskacis naTeli saxe, romelsac Tavisi saqmianobiT, mrwamsiT warsulsa da Tanamedro­veobas Soris gawyvetili kavSiris aRdgena dausaxavs miznad. Cans, rom igi mzad iyo ekisra mRvdelmTavris mZime misia saqarTvelos ZirZvel kuTxeSi – awindel afxazeTSi; amave dros Tvali novorosiis­kisaken – saqarTvelos isto­riuli sazRvrebisaken eWira (gv. 85, 137).

    kavkasiel mTielebTan omis pirobebSi, romlis damTavrebas afxazeTis samTav­ros gauqmeba unda mohyoloda, xelisufleba ar Cqarobda afxazeTSi axa­li mRvdel­mTavris daniSvnas. igi mxolod ixilavda am Tanamdebobaze wardgenil kandi­datu­rebs. eseni iyvnen sinodaluri kantoris wevri, qvab­Taxevis monastris wanamZRvari arq. tarasi, xobis  monastris winamZRvari arq. besarioni da afxazeTis saepiskoposo kaTedris arqimandriti aleqsandre (oqropiriZe). sabolood, arCevani am ukanasknelze gakeTda. 1861 wlis 21 noembers aleqsandre oqropiriZe afxazeTis episkoposad dainiSna (dok. #19). saxeldeba  moxda 1862 w. 1 marts, afxazeTis episkoposad kurTxeva ki Tbi­lisSi, sionis sakaTedro taZarSi imave wlis 4 marts Sesrulda (dok. #22).

    1863 wlis agvistoSi episkoposi aleqsandre egzarqos evsevis winaSe biWvinTis taZris aRdgenis daCqarebis Sesaxeb ayenebs sakiTxs (dok. ##28,31). xelisufleba aWianurebda mis ganaxlebas; amis gamo saepiskoposo kaTedra mudmivi adgilsamyo­fe­lisa da sakaTedro taZris gareSe iyo darCenili. 1867 wlisaTvis soxumis samxedro ganyofilebis ufrosma v. geimanma sakaTedro taZris soxumSi aSenebis winadadeba wamoayena. episkoposi aleqsandre mxars uWerda am winadadebas,. magram misi realizeba didi xniT (1884 wlamde) gadaido. afxazeTis mRvdelmTavarma soxumTan axlos sakuTari saxsrebiT ganaaxla Zveli eklesia „mosaxseneblad imperatoris aleqsandre meoris saswaulebrivi gadarCenisa 4 aprils 1866 welsa“; 1868 wels afxazeTis epis­ko­posma aseve sakuTari saxsrebiT ganaaxla soxumis sasaflaos eklesia  (j. gamaxaria. afxazeTi da marTlmadidebloba, gv. 456).

    mTlianad kavkasiaSi da maT Soris afxazeTSi arsebuli viTareba xels ar uwyobda misioneruli muSaobis gaSlas episkopos aleqsandres gegmebis Sesabamisad. kavkasiis omis damTavrebis (1864 w. 21 maisi) Semdeg mdgomareoba kidev ufro garTulda, rac afxazTa monaTesave Cerqezul-adiReuri tomebis (nawilobriv TviT afxazebis) iZulebiT TurqeTSi gadasaxlebam, gansakuTre­biT ki afxazeTis samTavros gauqmebam da mixeil ServaSiZis ruseTSi gadasaxlebam gamoiwvia. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom episkoposi aleqsandre, dekanozi besarion miqaberiZem da sxva sasuliero pirebi dapatimrebamde Tan axldnen afxazeTis mTavars (j. gamaxaria. afxazeTi da marTlmadidebloba, gv. 446-449). es ukanaskneli sul male (1865 w. 16 aprils) voroneJSi gardaicvala. dasaflavebulia moqvis taZarSi winaparTa saZvaleSi.

    samTavros gauqmeba da mTavris daRupva gaxda erT-erTi mizezi afxazTa cnobi­li ajanyebisa 1866 w., romelic samxedro Zalis gamoyenebiT iqna Cax­So­bili. maSin daiwyo masobrivi  muhajiroba – musulmanuri aRmsareblobisa da ruseTisadmi mtru­lad ganwyobili afxazebis TurqeTSi gadasaxleba. pirvel rigSi, es Seexo webeldas, sadac 1866 w. aseve ifeTqa ajanyebam. imperatoris nebarTviT (1866 w. noemberi), 1867 wlisaTvis 19342 afxazs daatovebines samSoblo. es ricxvi SeiZleboda gacilebiT meti yofiliyo, rom ara qarT­veli sasuliero da saero pirebis Zalisxmeva. im rTul da mZime viTarebaSi episkopos aleqsandres ar SeeZlo mxari ar daeWira ajanyebis CasaxSobad gata­re­buli samxedro zomebisaTvis, magram afxazeTis mRvdelmTavari mainc di­dad  TanaugrZnobda ruseTis mier dasaRupavad ganwirul afxazebs. „am ube­dur dros, ambobda ambrosi xelaia,roca afxazTaTvis yvela qristianis saxelis matarebeli sazizRari iyo, mxolod yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres hqonda afxazebTan kavSiri, mxolod mas uziarebdnen TavianT Wir-varams, mas endobodnen“ (dok. #75).

    episkopos aleqsandresTan erTad afxazeTSi moRvaweobdnen dekanozi besarion (vasil) miqaberiZe, sxvadasxva dros (XIX s. 40-iani wlebidan) is iyo samurzayanos blaRoCini (winamZRvari u.o.), eSketis, lixnis karis eklesiis mRvdeli da mixeil ServaSiZis sulieri moZRvari; samurzayanoSi aqtiur misionerul da sa­gan­manaTleblo saqmianobas eweoda blaRoCini mRvdeli daviT maWavariani (warmoSobiT goris mazridan iyo, iseve, rogorc episkoposi aleqsandre), ro­melsac gansakuTrebiT axlo urTierToba hqonda afxazeTis mRvdelmTavar­Tan. samsaxuris garda maT naTelmironobac akavSirebdaT episkoposi aleq­sand­re iyo daviT maWavarianis erT-erTi Svilis dimitris naTlia. am ori sasuliero moRvawis axlo urTierTobaze miu­TiTebs CanarTi osur enaze daviT maWavarianis werilSi episkopos aleqsandresadmi (dok. #30; koment. 42).

    afxazeTSi  mniSvnelovan figuras warmoadgenda 1857 wels samegrelodan gad­moy­vanili mRvdeli grigol dadiani (1836-1898 ww.) – eriskacobaSi aleqsandre eliz­baris Ze dadiani, general grigol ServaSiZis colis – aRaTis Zma. 1858 wlidan is iyo biWvinTis, 1859 wlidan ki abJuis olqebis winamZRvari, 1862 wlidan – afxazeTis saepis­koposo kaTedris iRumeni. 1865 wels exmareboda episkopos aleqsandres 65 afxazis monaTvlaSi. 1867 wlidan grigol dadiani samegreloSi da kaxeTSi moRvaweobda, 1886 w. 25 martidan guria-samegrelos episkoposia, 1898 wlidan – moskovis sinodaluri kantoris wevri.

    episkopos aleqsandres mmarTvelobis periodSi gamoCndnen pirveli afxazi sasuliero pirebi, maT Soris yvelaze gamorCeuli iyo lxinis mkvidri ivane gegia, qarTul-afxazuri enebis brwyinvale mcodne, pedagogi, lixnis taZris mRvdeli; gaxldaT komisiis wevri, romelmac afxazuri anbani Seqmna. SeiZleba dasaxeldes ioane arguni, romelmac sasuliero ganaTleba martvi­lis monasterSi miiRo da msaxurobda mRvdlad jer eSketSi, mere – tyvar­CelSi. momavalSi sakmaod cnobili mRvdeli gaxda aleqsandre oqropiriZis aRzrdili petre filia (koment. 49).

    afxazeTSi bevri sxva Rirseuli sasuliero piri msaxurobda. TiTo­e­ul maTgans didi wvlili miuZRvis afxazi xalxis mniSvnelovani nawilis gaqristianebaSi, eris fizikur da sulier gadarCenaSi. 1866-1867 wlebis muhajirobis Sedegad upiratesad is regionebi dazaraldnen, sadac sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo qarTvel misionerebs muSaobis saSualeba ar miecaT. es iyo webelda, dalis xeoba, fsxu, axCifsxu, aibga. aRniSnuli regionebi rusebma mTlianad „gawmindes“ afxazebisagan. biWvinTis, drandisa da oqumis olqebSi, sadac qarTvelma misionerebma aTasobiT adamiani monaTles, daarses an ganaaxles eklesia-monastrebi, muhajirebis ricxvi SedarebiT mcire iyo (samurzayanodan ki arc erTi adamiani ar wasula muhajirobaSi). amiT afxazi xalxi srul ganadgurebas gadaurCa. es aris qarTvel misionerTa mraval­w­lia­ni muSaobis Sedegi, maTi mTavari damsaxureba (j. gamaxaria. afxazeTi da marTlmadidebloba, gv. 452-454).

    1863 wlis 8 agvistoTi aris daTariRebuli episkopos aleqsandres mier Sedge­nili „afxazeTis eparqiis statistikuri aRwera“ (dok. #29). igi ram­de­nime parag­rafisagan Sedgeba. pirvel paragrafSi avtori saqarTvelos, maT Soris samegrelo-afxazeTis ruseTTan SeerTebis istorias mokled mimoi­xi­lavs. Semdgom paragrafebSi mocemulia afxazeTis aRwera, amasTan ganxilulia Semdegi sakiTxebi: „farTobi da mosaxleoba“, „adgili da niadagi“,  „klimati“, „tyeebi“, „cxovelebi“, „mcenareuloba“, „mineralebi“, „miwaTmoqmedeba“, „xelovnuri rwyva“, „mecxoveleoba“, „mebaReoba“. „afxazeTis eparqiis statistikuri aRwera“ SesaniSnavi pirvelwyaroa XIX s. SuaxanebSi regionis mosaxleobisa da fizikur-bunebrivi pirobebis SeswavlisaTvis. ucnobia, ra mizans isaxavda episkoposi aleqsandre, roca aRniSnul dokuments adgenda. SegviZlia mxolod varaudebi gamovTqvaT amasTan dakavSirebiT. mRvdel­mTavari xedavda, rom afxaz xalxSi qristianobis gavrcelebas da ganmtkicebas sxva mizezebTan erTad xels uSlida saerTo CamorCeniloba. misi daZleva ki mxaris ekonomikuri dawinaurebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iyo, vinaidan „netareba“ adamianebisa damokidebulia maTi cxovrebis pirobebze“ (dok. #14 – Sesavali). vfiqrobT, sinodalur kantoraSi wardgenili aRweriT episkoposi aleqsandre cdilobda sasuliero xelisuflebis yuradRebis mipyrobas afxazeTis Ca­mor­Cenilobaze, mis ekonomikur SesaZleblobebze, am SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebis aucileblobaze da a.S.

    afxazi xalxis saerTo CamorCenilobaSi, bunebrivia, ganaTlebisa da kul­tu­ris dabali donec igulisxmeboda. fasdaudebelia episkopos aleqsan­d­res piradi wvlili am sferoSi CamorCenilobis daZlevis saqmeSi. sakuTari saxsrebiT man bevr afxaz ymawvils misca soliduri sasuliero ganaTleba, aswav­la qarTul-rusuli enebi, gaukafa gza cxovrebaSi. ase, magaliTad, kav­kasiaSi marTlmadideblobis aRmdgeni sazogadoebis warmomadgenelma n. RoRoberiZem 1864 w. 12 noembers Tavis angariSSi aRniSna, rom man naxa „6 axalgazrda afxazi, romlebic samegreloSi – caiSis monasterSi  soxumis epis­koposis yovladsamRvdelo aleqsandres saxsrebiT swavlobdnen sasulie­ro wignebs“ (dok. #32). cnobilia sia im ymawvilebisa (sul rva), visac afxazeTis episkoposma wlebis manZilze sakuTari xarjebiT misca ganaTleba (dok. #37). caiSis monasterSi „maT Zalian kargad Seiswavles qarTuli saRvTismsaxuro wignebi; saRvTismsaxuro wignebi Tbilisidanac iqna gamowerili, – wers episkoposi aleqsandre, – xsenebuli moswavleebidan samma Zalian kargad iswavla galoba. 1862, 1863 da 1864 wlebSi xsenebuli moswavleebisaTvis guriidan gamoviwere da daviqirave mgalobeli nano xavTasi. am mgalobel xavTass, romelic guriis episkopos gabrielis mgalobelTa rigebidan aris, yovelwliurad, garda jamagirisa vuxdi as-as vercxlis maneTs. saerTod, xsenebuli afxazebi – Cemi saSinao moswavleebi, Zalian kargad galoben, kiTxuloben da saubroben qarTulad, saubroben megrulad. isini agreTve rigianad kiTxuloben, weren da saubroben rusulad. zogierTi maTgani medaviTned gamodgeba“... episkopos aleqsandres afxazi moswavleebi qarTul da afxazur enebs aswavlidnen moskovis sasuliero akademia damTavrebul mRvdelmonazon ionas, romelsac afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis zeda­mxedvelis Tanamdeboba unda daekavebina. am saswavlebelSi apirebdnen swav­lis gagrZelebas episkopos aleqsandres moswavleebic. „isini iqnebian mSveneba saswavleblisa, werda afxazeTis episkoposi; – am moswavleebis saxiT me pirvelad Cavuyare safuZveli Wabukebis kapitalur sasuliero ganaTlebas afxazeTSi. vimeoreb, vqeni sikeTe, ramdenadac SemeZlo samecniero moRva­weo­bis, ganaTlebisa da umaRlesi aRzrdis misaRebad moswavleTa momzadebis sarbielze. yvelgan msufevma da yovlis mxilvelma RmerTma uwyis ramdeni mqonda survili afxazebisTvis zneobrivi da gonebrivi ganaTleba mimeca“ (dok. #37).

    yovelgvari gadaWarbebis gareSe SeiZleba iTqvas, rom swavla-ganaTlebis saqmes afxazTa Soris swored episkoposma aleqsandrem Cauyara safuZveli. biWvinTis sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnis Tu aRdgenis Taobaze krebulSi Setanil mravalricxovani dokumentebi afxazeTis episkoposis samomavlo saganmanaTleblo gegmebzec miuTiTeben. igi did mniSvnelobas aniWebda momaval saswavlebelSi qarTuli da afxazuri enebis Seswavlis saqmes, egzarqosisgan moiTxovda mRvdel ioane gegias daniSvnas sasuliero saswavlebelSi afxazuri enis maswavleblad (dok. #39); aranakleb mzrun­velobas iCenda rusuli enis mimarTac (dok. #42).

    mimowera 1867 w. biWvinTaSi sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnis sakiTxebze (am saswavlebelSi patara besarion xelaiasac unda eswavla dok. #37) mimowerad darCa, saswavlebeli ki xelisuflebam ara da ar gaxsna, radgan „es gaaZlierebda iq qarTve­le­bis gavlenas“ (givi rogava. dasax. naSromi, gv. 37). maSin, roca afxazeTis sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnis sakiTxi principSi ukve gadawyda dadebiTad, soxumis samxedro ganyofilebis ufrosma v. geimanma mefisnacvals mixeil romanovs moxseneba warudgina (1867 w. 14 noemberi) afxazeTSi qristianuli sarwmunoebis mdgomareobisa da misi ganmtkicebisaTvis aucilebeli zomebis Sesaxeb. generlis azriT, qris­tia­no­bis warumateblobis erT-erT mizezs „gaugebar qarTul enaze“ RvTismsa­xureba, skolebSi ki „afxazi bavSvebisaTvis sruliad ucxo qarTul enaze“ swavleba warmoadgenda; v. geimans ar moswonda Tu ra garemoebaSi da rogor atarebda RvTismsaxurebas „Zvel da WuWyian samosSi gamowyobili“ afxazeTis episkoposi (RvTismsaxurebis brwyinvalebis uzrunvelyofas sul iTxovda ep. aleqsandre gv. 86-87, 137). mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad, soxumis samxedro ganyofilebis ufrosis azriT, saWiro iyo afxazeTis eparqiis gauqmeba mosaxleobis simciris gamo da ori sablaRoCinos dafuZneba, romlebsac saerTo xelmZRvanelobas ufrosi blaRoCini gauwevda; am Tanamdebobaze saukeTeso kandidatad mas miaCnda daviT maWavariani, romelmac samurzaya­noS­i mravalwliani moRvaweobiT imperiuli xelisuflebis didi ndoba moipova. igi unda gamxdariyo afxazeTSi umaRlesi sasuliero piri. gaTvaliswinebul iyo aseve gauqmebuli eparqiis imereTis episkopos gabrielisaTvis daqvemdebareba, Zveli taZrebis aRdgena, skolebis dafuZneba „ufro myar (e. i. rusul – j. g.) safuZvelze“, gamorCeuli moswavleebis stavropolis sasulie­ro seminariaSi gagzavna da a.S. (j. gamaxaria. afxazeTi da marTlmadidebloba, gv. 932-937).

    am moxsenebiT, romelic egzarqosma evsevim moiwona (gansakuTrebiT episkopos aleqsandres afxazeTidan gawveva), SeiZleba iTqvas, iwyeba afxa­zeT­Si mizanmimarTuli rusifikatoruli politikis gatareba, romelic Semdgom­Si ufro gamkacrda. aRniSnul politikas Seewira afxazeTis sasuliero saswavlebelic, sadac qarTuli, afxazuri da rusuli enebi Tanabar doneze iyo dayenebuli (rus moswavleebsac ki afxazuri ena unda eswavlaT. dok. #42).

    kavkasiis saero da sasuliero xelisufleba afxazeTis eparqiis reor­ga­ni­zaciis gegmis SemuSavebas Seudga. winaswar iyo gadawyvetili episkopos aleqsandres afxazeTidan gadayvanis sakiTxi. qarTuli da afxazuri enebi­saT­vis mzrunveli mRvdelmTavari ver jdeboda im politikaSi, romelic v. geimanis zemoTxsenebul moxsenebaSi iyo Camoyalibebuli. episkopos aleq­san­dres ar endobodnen da ufro adrec surdaT misi afxazeTidan gawveva. vfiq­robT, am mizniT iyo inspirirebuli mRvdelmTavris winaaRmdeg afxaze­Tis samRv­deloebis „saCivari“ kavkasiaSi marTl­madideblobis aRmdgeni sazoga­doebis saxelze (1865 w. 20 maisi). dokuments xels awerdnen afxazeTis kaTedris mRvdelmonazoni besarioni (miqaberiZe), mRvdlebi: tami­Sis giorgi axvlediani, eSketis – giorgi Waraia, moqvis – spiridon CxikvaZe, kvitoulis – iulon Tofuria, iloris – zosime xelaia, aTaras – anton grigolia, Suawylis – giorgi gegeWkori, acis – mixeil saxokia, lixnis – ioane gegia, durifSis – ioane TvalTvaZe, baRiqiTas – Tadeoz sarsania, foqveSis – isaia sajaia. saCivari sino­da­lur kantoras gadaegzavna, romelmac 1865 w. 15 seqtembers episkopos aleqsandresagan „saTanado axsna-ganmarteba“ moiTxova. gairkva, rom „saCivari“ SeudgeniaT da mRvdlebisaTvis motyuebiT xeli mouwerinebiaT iRumen grigols (dadiani), besarion miqaberiZes, giorgi axvledians, iulon Tofu­rias da anton grigolias. danarCenebma cxra mRvdelma daadastura, rom maT ar icodnen ras awerdnen xels, rom SecdomaSi arian Seyvanili, episkopos aleq­sand­­resTan ki araviTari pretenzia ara aqvT; rom, piriqiT, igi yvelanairad xels uwyobda maT qristianobis gavrcelebis saqmeSi da a.S. (csia, f. 489, aRw. 1, s. 64847, f. 1-9).

    1868 wels afxazeTSi administraciuli reforma ganxorcielda. sam­Tav­ros gau­qme­bisTanave soxumis samxedro ganyofilebis SemadgenlobaSi Seyvani­li sami olqisa (bzifis, soxumis, abJuis) da ori saboqaulos (samurzayanos, webeldis) nacvlad, 1866 wels oTxi olqi (biWvinTis, webeldis, drandis, oqumis) Camoyalibda; 1868 wels ki Seiqmna ori olqi, romlebic ubnebad iyo­fodnen. biWvinTis olqi moicavda gudauTisa da gumisTis ubnebs; oCamCiris olqi ki kodorisa da samurzayanos ubnebisagan Sedgeboda. calke mmarT­veloba hqonda webeldas. administraciulma reformam daaCqara eparqiis reorganizacia. vinaidan ar arsebobda afxazeTi, arc afxazeTis eparqia  unda arsebuliyo, miTumetes qarTuli RvTismsaxurebiT.

    1868 wlis 20 aprils kavkasiel mTielTa sammarTveloSi general i. barto­lomeis, episkopos gabrielisa da sxvaTa monawileobiT Catarda TaT­bi­ri, sadac ganixiles sakiTxi afxazeTSi qristianobis ganmtkicebisaTvis auci­le­be­li zomebis Sesaxeb. gadawyda, eTxovos episkopos gabriels afxazeTis samrevloebis mimoxilva, arsebul problemebSi garkveva da saTanado winadadebebis wardgena kavkasiaSi marTlmadideblobis aRmdgeni sazogadoe­bis sabWoSi. aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis Sesasruleblad episko­pos­ma gab­riel­ma afxazeTSi 1868 w. mais-ivnisSi imogzaura.

    am droidan episkoposi aleqsandre faqtiurad ukve ar asrulebda afxazeTis mRvdelmTavris movaleobas. 1868 w. ivnisSi igi TbilisSi gaiwvies, Tumca forma­lu­rad kidev erTi weliwadi rCeboda Zvel Tanamdebobaze. qalaqis sazogadoebam Rrma pativiscemis niSnad episkopos aleqsandres 1868 w. 10 ivniss gulTbili adresi miarTva (dok. #46). generalma grigol ServaSiZem, Seityo ra afxazeTis episkoposis mosalodneli ganTavisuflebis Sesaxeb, 1868 w. 17 maiss sTxova mas nebarTva „geaxloT da Tayvanis vsce meufebasa Tqvensa, viTarca iTxovs movaleoba Cemi“ (dok. #45).

    1868 wlis 15 ivniss mRvdeli ivane aleqseevi ep. aleqsandres werda, rom soxumisa da afxazeTis mcxovrebni sinanuls gamoTqvameno aqedan Tqvens gamgzavrebasTan dakavSirebiT, rom amis gamo Sewuxebuli iyo «любящий Вас и любимый Вами паства» (k. kekeliZis sax. xelnawerTa instituti. al. oqropi­riZis fondi, s. 425). 1868 wlis 28 ivniss mRvdelmonazoni antoni (dgebuaZe), meufes acnobebda ra soxumSi datovebuli misi nivTebis gayidvisa da saxlis gaqiravebis Sesaxeb, werda: „sxvebr gaxlavarT Sewuxebuli Tqvenis meufebis moSorebiT. yvelani ojaxebiT da erTobiT mravalni pirni aq soxumSi mcxovrebni didis sasoebiT Tayvaniscemas da marjvenaTa anborebiT locva-kurTxevas gamoiTxovs Tqvenis meufebisgan (iqve, s. 445). soxumidan gamg­zav­re­bis win episkoposma sakuTari bib­li­o­Teka afxazeTis momaval sasuliero saswavlebels (romelic ar gaxsnila) gadasca (iqve, s. 419). miuxedavad Tbilis­Si gadayvanisa, igi inarCunebda kavSirs afxazeTTan, aqaur samRvdeloebasTan  (dok. ##47, 51 da a.S.).

    1869 wlis 30 maiss imperatoris brZanebulebiT goris episkoposi geronti (afxazeTis yofili episkoposi, romelic Tavis  droze aleqsandre oqropiriZem Secvala), ganTavisuflda Tanamdebobidan pensiaze gasvlasTan dakavSirebiT da mis adgilze amjeradac episkoposi aleqsandre dainiSna. imave brZanebulebiT ep. gabriels afxazeTis eparqiisa da samurzayanos sablaRoCinos eklesiebis marTva daevala (dok. #54). aleqsandre oqropiriZe erTdroulad gaxda saqarTvelos eparqiis vikari, romlis movaleobasac, uwmindesi sinodis 1843 wlis 30 agvistos brZanebulebis Sesabamisad, egzar­qo­sis davalebebis Sesruleba da sinodaluri kantoris sxdomebze SeZlebis­dagvarad daswreba (rogorc kantoris wevrisa) warmoadgenda (csia, f. 489, aRw. 1, s. 27140, f. 4).

    goris episkoposad daniSvnis Semdegac meufe aleqsandre afxazeTTan mWidro kavSirs inarCunebda, Tumca mxolod erTxel iyo Camosuli yofil samwyosSi (1888 w. agvistoSi), isic mxolod axal aTonSi (dok. #66). xSirad iRebda informacias aq arsebuli viTarebis Sesaxeb. es kargad Cans dekanoz daviT maWavarianis da sxvaTa werilebidan. 1872 wlis 28 noembers dekanozi acnobebda sofel akafaSi Camosuli viRac „eSmaki kacis“ Sesaxeb, romelic mosaxleobaSi motyuebiT islams avrcelebda    (dok. #56). 1877 w. 1-5 ivniss dekanozma d. maWavarianma da mRvdelma timoTe saxokiam episkoposs TurqeT­Tan omis Sedegad q. soxumis gadawvis, soflebSi eklesiebis aoxrebis, mogvia­nebiT (1882 w. 28 noembers) ki maTi aRdgenis Sesaxeb Seatyobines (dok. ##58, 59). aleqsandre oqropiriZem daviT maWavarianisagan (1885 w. 12 oqtombris werili) afxazeTSi egzarqosis Camosvlisa da adgilobriv kaTedraze rusi episkoposis mosalodneli daniSvnis Taobaze informacia miiRo (dok. #63). rusi episkoposis mosalodnel daniSvnas, afxa­zeTSi gaxSirebuli sikvdilianobas exeba dekanozis 1886 w. 30 dekembris werili (dok. #64). 1893 w. 20 oqtombris werilSi meufisadmi dekanozi soxumis episkoposad petres daniSvnisa da soxumis sakaTedro taZris gafarToebis Sesaxeb iwereboda (dok. #71). Semdgom werilebSi (1894 w. 1 ianvari, 1895 w. 4 aprili) dekanozi d. maWavariani dadebiTad axasiaTebda episkopos petres moRvaweobas, romelic sul male soxums moaSores  da mis nacvlad „Zlier kargi (?!), magram kargad moxucebuli“ mRvdelmTavari (ep. arseni) daniSnes (dok. ##72, 74).  daviT maWavariani 1892 w. 20 oqtombers meufe aleqsandres soxumis episkopos agafadoris ruseTSi SesaZlo gadayvanis Sesaxeb werda da dasZenda: „vinicobaa es xma marTali gamodges, maSin Tqven rom inebebdeT afxazeTSi gadmosv­las, vgoneb, urigo ar iyos. aq damoukidebel mRvdelmTavrad iqnebiT da ufro Tavi­su­fali da, imedia, unayofodac ar darCes Tqveni Rvawli am qveyanaSi, romelsac zed­miwevniT icnobT (dok. #69). episkopos  aleqsandres soxumis eparqiaSi dabrunebis sakiTxi, samwuxarod, arc dasmula.

    aleqsandre oqropiriZe, rogorc saqarTvelo-imereTis sinodaluri kantoris wevri, uamrav Txovnas iRebda afxazeTidan. iloris wm. giorgis eklesiis mRvdelma zosime xelaiam afxazeTis yofili mRvdelmTavari orjer (1872 w. 17 noemberi da 1873 w. 15 dekemberi) Seawuxa dedis pensiis daniSvnasTan dakavSirebiT  (dok. ## 55, 57). mama-Svil daviT (1880 w. 27 aprili) da konstan­tine (1893 w. 11 marti) maWavarianebs sruliad gansxvavebuli miznebisaTvis afxazeTis eparqiis dafuZnebasTan dakav­Si­rebuli sakiTxebi ainteresebdaT (dok. ##66, 70).  1890 w. 4 noembers general-maiori zurab Cqotua mis mier saberioSi aSenebuli eklesiis krebulisaTvis xelfasis daniSvnas episkopos aleqsandres sTxovda (dok. #67). dekanoz daviT maWavarianis Suamdgom­lo­biT (1894 w. 20 agvisto) masve unda gadaewyvita otobaieli mRvdelis Svilis aleqsandre ruruas maswavleblad daniSvnis sakiTxic (dok. #73). q. armavirSi sacxovreblad gadasuli drandis monastris yofili rusi winamZRvari – iRumeni varlamic ki qarTvel episkopos aleqsandres (da ara rusebs) sTxovda daxmarebas (1888 w. 19 ivlisi) monastris aRdgenisas daxarjuli sakuTari Tanxebis naxevris (anu 12 aTasi maneTis) anazRaurebasTan dakavSirebiT  (dok. #59). krebulSi Setanilia mSvenieri qarTuliT Sedgenili dokumenti – afxazeTis ukanaskneli mTavris mixeil ServaSiZis qaliSvilis, episkopos aleqsandres naTlulis – Tamaris mier 1892 w. 11 aprils naTliasadmi gagzavnili werili (dok. #68). ramdenime dokumenti pirad sakiTxebs, kerZod soxumSi ep. aleqsandres kuTvnili miwis nakveTis, saxlis, aseve wignebis gayidvas exeba (dok. ##58, 60, 61).

    episkoposi aleqsandre sxvadasxva Tanamdebobaze gulmodgine samsa­xu­risaTvis 1871 w. 22 oqtombers wm. anas pirveli xarisxis ordeniT dajildovda; 1878 wels igi kavkasiaSi marTlmadi­deb­lobis aRmdgeni sazogadoebis komitetis wevrad daamtkices.

    1882 wlis 2 aprilidan 1886 wlis 2 martamde episkoposi aleqsandre guriis epar­qias marTavda, ris Semdegac kvlav goris episkoposis Zvel Tanam­de­­bobas dau­brunda. guriis eparqiaSi samsaxurisaTvis mas mociqulTa swo­ris – vladimiris meore xarisxis ordeni eboZa.

    1886 wlis 7 martidan episkoposi aleqsandre erTdroulad daviT garejis mo­nas­tris winamZRvaria, 1887 wlis 3 martidan ki mis mier aRdgenil Sio-mRvimis monasters xelmZRvanelobda.

    1893 wlis 15 maiss imperatorma aleqsandre mesamem episkoposi aleqsandre daa­jil­dova sigeliT, romelSic naTqvamia: „yurad viRe ra Tqveni xangrZlivi warCi­ne­buli da gulmodgine samsaxuri  marTlmadidebeli ekle­siis sasargeblod, giwyalo­beb amasTanave warmogzavnil Zvirfasis qvebiT moWedils gulzed dasakid samRv­delmTavro xatsao“. garda amisa episkoposma aleqsandres 1882 w. 23 ivniss daWril da avadmyof meomarTa mzrunveli sazo­gado­ebisagan wiTeli jvari miiRo; imperatrica maria aleqsandres asulis saxelzed daarsebulma usinaTloTa samzrunvelos sabWom mas sikvdilamde gulze satareblad 1896 w. 5 ianvars oqros niSani uboZa.

    1896 wlis 12 maiss qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelma sazoga­doe­bam ep. aleqsandre sapatio wevrad airCia „niSnad pativiscemisa im didi Rvaw­lisaTvis, romelic mas miuZRvis saqarTvelos winaSe rogorc imiTi, rom hbeWdavs warCinebulTa sasuliero mweralTa TxzulebaT, aaxlebs SesaniSnav  dangreul taZarTa da cdilobs aRadginos Zveli qarTuli galoba da amisaTvis yovelgvars RonisZiebasa hRonobs, ise imiTi, rom xels uwyobs saqarTvelos xalxis gonebrivs ganviTarebas da Tavisis xarjiT  hzrdis obols sxvadasxva saswavlebelSi“ (guria-samegrelos episkoposi yovlad­samRvdelo aleqsandre, gv. 26–27; sityvebi da werilebi yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandreze, gv. 79-80).

    1898 w. 5 aprils gazeTma „cnobis furcelma“ (#500) pirvel gverdze ga­moqveyna ori vrceli informacia aleqsandre oqropiriZis guria-samegrelos episkoposad (es iyo mxcovani mRvdelmTavris bolo oficialuri Tanamdeboba) da misi ZmisSvilis arqimandrit leonide oqropiriZis goris episkoposad daniSvnis Sesaxeb. 1898 w. 17 maiss sionis sakaTedro taZarSi Catarda ep. aleqsandres gacilebasTan dakavSire­bu­li paraklisi, romelic episkoposma leonidem gadaixada; sityva ilia WavWavaZem warmoTqva; gamovida ep. aleq­san­drec. Tavis mokle sityvaSi guria-samegrelos episkoposma xalxs sarwmunoe­bis SenarCunebisaken, eklesiis siyvarulisaken, morCile­bi­saken, sasiqadulo winaparTa anderZis dacvisaken mouwoda. Sekrebilma sazoga­doebam sayvarel mRvdelmTavars saCuqrad miarTva moskovidan gamowerili kverTxi warweriT: „aRiRe kverTxi ese da waiyvane eri Cveni gzasa simarTlisasa. 15 maisi, 1898 w.“ (cnobis furceli, 1898, 19 maisi). qarTulma sazogadoebam da samRvdeloebam 1902 wlis 4 marts aleqsandre oqropiriZes episkoposad (afxazeTisa) kurTxevis 40 weli miuloca (cnobis furceli, 1902, 3,7 da 9 marti). guria-samegrelos episkoposad moR­va­weobis periodSi aleqsandre Riad dau­pi­rispirda qarTveli eris gaTiSvis, samegrelodan qarTuli enis gamodevnis impiriul politikas, romelic i. vostor­govis xeliT xorcieldeboda. es dapirispireba mZafrad gamomJRavnda 1902 aprilSic, roca jer afxazeTSi, mere ki samegreloSi egzarqosi aleqsi i. vostorgovis TanxlebiT stumrobda da qarTul-megrul enebs Soris gansxvavebas „swavlobda“ (ix. Прибавление к Духовному Вестнику Грузинского Экзархата, 1903, №22, с. 10-47; 1904, № 1-2, с. 20-36; Духовный Вестник грузинского Экзархата, 1904, №4, с. 26-41 _ i. vostorgovis werilebi) dasavleT saqarTvelodan  TbilisSi dabrunebulma egzarqosma uwmindesi sinodis ober-prokuror k. pobedonoscevs saidumlo werili gaug­zavna afxazeTSi  WeliSis monastris winamZRvris – arqimandrit ambrosi xelaias guria-samegreloSi ki episkopos aleqsandres „antisaxelm­wifoeb­ri­vi“ moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. „senakis mazris ufrosi savsebiT konfidencialurad matyobinebs – werda egzarqosi aleqsi, – rom guria-samegrelos episkoposi yovladsamRvdelo aleqsandre Ria Sekrebebze Tavadebis TandaswrebiT zogjer sakuTar Tavs rusi xalxisa da rusuli xelisuf­lebis misamarTiT uxamsi gamoxdomis uflebas aZlevs, mouwodebs Tavadebs gaerTian­d­nen Tavisuflebis dasacavad“ (csia, f. 488, aRw. 1, s. 26435, f. 1-2). vfiqrobT, egzar­qosis am werilma ober-prokurorisadmi didwilad ganapiroba 1903 wlis noemberSi guria-samegrelos episkoposis aleqsandres samsaxuridan daTxovna da mis adgilze rusofilobiT cnobili dimitri abaSiZis daniSvna. q. foTis mouravma niko nikolaZem da qalaqis sazogadoebam adgilobriv samRvdeloebasTan erTad 1903 w. 30 noembers gulTbili gacileba mouwyves episkopos aleqsandres (cnobis furceli 1903, 23 noemberi, 3 dekemberi).

    cxovrebis darCenili wlebi eris sayvarelma moZRvarma Sio-mRvimis monasterSi gaatara. masze damTrgunvelad imoqmeda didi ilias veragulma mkvlelobam 1907 wlis 30 agvistos (12 seqtembers). sul male 1907 wlis 9 (22) noembers gamoCenili sasuliero moRvawe aleqsandre oqropiriZe gardai­c­vala. didi pativiT daikrZala Sio-mRvimis monasterSi 16 (29) noembers. im dRes sityviT gamosulma arqimandritma ambrosi xelaiam sazogadoebas Seax­sena meufis afxazeTSi moRvaweobisa da im uzarmazari ndobis Sesaxeb, romliTac igi sargeblobda afxazTa Soris (dok. #75).

    1995 wlis 17 seqtembers saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wm. sinodis krebam moismina cxum-afxazeTis mTavarepiskoposis danielis (daTuaSvili) moxseneba axali wmindanebis kanonizirebis Sesaxeb. krebis ganCinebiT, sxva Rirs mamebTan erTad wmindanad Seiracxa episkoposi aleqsandre (oqropiriZe) wminda mRvdelmTavris saxelwodebiT (gaz. madli. 1995, 30 seqtemberi); dawesda xsenebis dRe – 26 oqtomberi (8 noemberi).

     

     

     

     

     

     

                                                                           

                                                                            dinara darsalia

    afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis umaRlesi

    sabWos aparatis mTavari specialisti

     

    „movaswari afxazebis siyvarulis damsaxureba“

    wminda mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre (oqropiriZe)

     

     xseneba 8 noemberi

     (ucnobi dokumentebi)

    1856 wlis seqtemberSi afxazeTis pirvelma episkoposma germanem (gogelaSvili) imereTis kaTedra daikava. imave wlis 20 oqtombers saqarTvelos egzarqosma mitropolitma isidorem arqimandrit aleqsandres werilobiT acnoba, rom mas avalebs „afxazeTis eparqiis yvela saqmeTa marTvas“. 1851 wlidan afxazeTSi warmatebiT moRvawe axalgazrda misioneri da pedagogi, arqimandriti aleqsandre, am dRidan, weliwadze meti xnis  ganmavlobaSi, eparqiis mmarTvelis movaleobas asrulebda. eparqiis axal mmarTvels episkopos germanesgan qonebis, saqmeebisa da dokumentebis gadmobarebis garda, egzarqosi avalebda afxazeTis eklesiebis reviziis Catarebas da moxsenebis wardgenas, romelSic naCvenebi iqneboda yirimis omis (1853-1956 ww.). Semdgom eklesiebis mdgomareoba, kerZod, Tu romel samrevloSi aRsdga RvTismsaxureba, adgilze imyofeba Tu ara yvela krebuli, ra zomebi iyo miRebuli jer kidev samsaxurSi argamocxadebuli sasuliero pirebis mimarT da a.S.; egzarqosi iTxovda dawvrilebiT informacias omamde biWvinTaSi aSenebuli mRvdelmTavris saxlis dazianebisa da, savaraudod, mis aRsadgenad saWiro saxsrebTan dakavSirebiT. „yvela am punqtis mixedviT, momaxseneT safuZvlianad da dauyovnebliv“, werda egzarqosi.

    rodesac egzarqosi isidore msgavs davalebas aZlevda afxazeTis eparqiis axladdaniSnul mmarTvels, mas ukve edo magidaze afxazeTSi adre Casuli arqimandrit aleqsandres mier 1856 w. 22 ivliss  Sedgenili moxseneba episkopos germanes saxelze, afxazeTis eklesiebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb (episkopos germanem aRniSnuli moxsenebis Sinaarsi egzarqoss imave wlis 26 ivliss Seatyobina). 22 ivlisidan 20 oqtombramde ki TiTqmis araferi Secvlila. afxazeTSi mxolod sami eklesia moqmedebda (lixnis, acis da iloris), danarCeni, arqimandrit aleqsandris sityvebiT, „wabilwuli iyo mtris mier“. eparqiis mmarTvelma uzarmazari Sroma gaswia afxazeTis eklesiebis aRdgenisa da maTi funqcionirebis ganaxlebisaTvis, ris Sesaxebac is periodulad saqarTvelos egzarqoss moaxsenebda. 1857 w. 2 da 15 seqtembris moxsenebebi Seicavs pasuxebs kiTxvebze, romlebic ainteresebda egzarqoss da dasmulia 1856 w. 20 oqtombris werilSi. mkiTxvels vTavazobT arqimandrit aleqsandres 1857 w. 15 seqtembris kidev erTi moxsenebis srul teqsts, Cveneuli TargmaniT. Targmani maqsimalurad aris miaxloebuli dedanTan. afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTveli egzarqoss atyobinebs yirimis omis Sedegad dazianebuli eklesiebis aRdgenis procesis TiTqmis dasrulebis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs arqimandrit aleqsandres midgoma misioneruli movaleobis, „urwmunoTa marTlmadideblobaze moqcevis wminda saqmis“ mimarT. dokumentidan vigebT, rom afxazur samrevloSi aravis naTlavdnen „marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebis dogmatebis SemecnebisTvis  Semzadebis gareSe“, raTa monaTlulebi SemdgomSi mtkiced mdgariyvnen qristes rjulze.

    ai, afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTvelis arqimandrit aleqsandres 1857 w. 15 seqtembris moxsenebac, romelic pirvelad qveyndeba:

    mis maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobas, uwmindesi sinodis wevrs, qarTlisa da kaxeTis mitropolits, saqarTvelos egzarqoss da kavalers afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTvelis, arqimandrit aleqsandres moxseneba

    1857 w. 15 seqtemberi

    Tqveni maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobis gasuli wlis 20 oqtombris 998 mowerilobis gamo, pativi maqvs movaxseno Tqvens maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobas, rom Cemi gankargulebiT, afxazeTis eklesiebi, romelTa trapezi dangreuli iyo da romlebSic mtrebma SigniTa nivTebi daazianes an daabinaves pirutyvi, moaTavses sanovage, SekeTebulia, gasufTavebulia da Tanamdebobrivad saeklesio rigis Sesabamisad nakurTxia Cems mier, garda aTarisa da mazuxisa (biWvinTa). pirveli maT Soris imitom ar aris nakurTxi, rom trapezis Tavze awvims, aseve ar iyo Semokavebuli, ar gaaCndaT samoseli da trapezis gadasafarebeli. amJamad, Cemi mecadineobiT, naklovanebebi gamosworebulia da eklesia iqneba kurTxeuli, razec meqneba pativi droulad movaxseno Tqvens maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobas. meore – mazuxis eklesia imitom ar aris jer kidev nakurTxi, rom igi araa mTlianad daculi mtaceblebis – mTielebis Tavdasxmisagan, radganac biWvinTa rusebs jer ar daukavebiaT. garda amisa, am eklesiis yavari TiTqmis mTlianad waRebulia da mis SesakeTeblad sul cota 100 vercxlis maneTi iqneba saWiro, vinaidan aqauri Raribi, gaZarcvuli da daSinebuli mosaxleobis daxmarebisa da Semweobis imedi ar unda gvqondes.

    rac Seexeba Tqveni maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobisTvis Cemi STagonebiT monaTluli afxazebis siis miwodebas, Tqvens maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobas unda movaxseno, rom  TiTqmis yvela monaTluli afxazi, romelTa Sesaxeb mRvdlebis mier Sedgenili siebi warvudgine Tqvens maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobas, am Tvis 15 ricxvis 106 moxsenebasTan erTad, wminda naTlobis didi saidumlos miRebis Rirsi gaxda Cemi xelSewyobiT da monawileobiT. me viyavi moqmedi piri, rogorc misioneri, xolo mRvdeli – saidumlos aRmsarebeli. am mxriv xSirad piradad vaxdendi zegavlenas afxazTa gonebasa da gulebze, xSiradac – mRvdlebis meSveobiT, romlebic araerTxel davarige, rogor moaxdinon zemoqmedeba afxazebze, moqcevis dros rogor gamoiyenon maT winaaRmdeg sulieri iaraRi, RvTis sityva!

    garda amisa, qadagebis gziT movaswari bevri afxazis dayolieba wminda naTlobis miRebaze, magram garkveul dromde davtove kaTakmevlebad.

    didis mokrZalebiT maqvs pativi mogaxsenoT, rom Semdgom gansakuTrebuli sifrTxile da yuradReba urwmunoTa marTlmadideblobaze moqcevis wminda saqmisadmi. zogadad, me vcdilobdi marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebis dogmatebis SemecnebisTvis Semzadebis gareSe ar dagveSva wminda naTloba, raTa wminda naTlisRebis Semdeg ar gandgomodnen qristianobas, ris magaliTebsac TurqTa Semosevebis Semdeg bevrs vxedavT afxazeTSi. amis gamo jer vcdilobdi  afxazuri samrevloebis mRvdlebis darigebas, rom  maT naTlisRebamde aswavlon urwmunoebs rwmenis simboloSi mocemuli moZRvreba qristianobis mTavari WeSmaritebebis Sesaxeb, rac mTlianad eTanxmeba Tqveni maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobis a. w. 30 aprilis 106 mowerilobas, romelic gamomdina­reobda Tqvendami batoni mefisnacvalis a. w. 31 ianvris 572 mimarTvidan“.

    aqve warmovadgenT afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTvelis, arqimandrit aleqsandres 1857 w. 20 dekembriT daTariRebul kidev erT werils, romlis adresatia saukuneze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi kavkasiaSi misioneruli saqmianobis warmmarTveli uwyebis – osuri sasuliero komisiis kancelaria. dokumenti aseve aris Cvens mier rusuli dednidan maq­si­maluri sizustiT Targmnili. werili Sedgenilia quTaisSi, sadac arqimandriti aleqsandre afxazeTis axal episkopos gerontisTan (papitaSvili) Sesaxvedrad Cavida, raTa is Tavis samwysoSi mSvidobianad Caeyvana. unda aRiniSnos, rom afxazeTis kaTedris dasakaveblad saqarTvelo-imereTis sinodalurma kantoram, mefisnacval a. bariatin­s­kisTan SeTanxmebiT, 1857 w. TebervalSi uwmindes sinods sami kandidatura warudgina: sinodaluri kantoris wevri, arqimandriti geronti (papitaSvili), afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTveli arqimandriti aleqsandre (oqropiriZe) da Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis profesori, mRvdel-monazoni gabrieli (qiqoZe). 1857 w. 17 agvistos uwmindesma sinodma arCevani arqimendrit gerontize gaakeTa. afxazeTis episkoposad misi xeldasxma 1857 w. 7 oqtombers Sesrulda. swored masTan Sesaxvedrad Cavida quTaisSi, SesaZloa, uwmindesi sinodis gadawyvetilebiT ramdenadme gulnatkeni aleqsandre (geronti papitaSvils, danarCeni ori kandidatisagan gansxvavebiT, akademiuri ganaTleba ar miuRia), magram afxazeTis mTavris miwveviT maleve ukan dabrunda, raTa mTavarTan, mis ojaxTan da mTels afxazeTTan erTad Sobis dResaswauls Sexvedroda. arqimandriti aleqsandre aRfrTovanebulia mTavris miwveviT, raSic man savsebiT samarTlianad afxazeTis winaSe misi didi damsaxurebis aRiareba, afxazTa mxridan siyvarulisa da pativiscemis gamovlineba dainaxa; amasTanave, saWirod CaTvala yvelaferi amis Sesaxeb osuri komisiisTvis ecnobebina, am ukanasknels ki egzarqosisTvis moexsenebina.

    osuri komisiisTvis gagzavnili werili warmoadgens erTgvar Sejamebas Tu Sefa­sebas TiTqmis 7 wlis ganmavlobaSi afxazeTSi Catarebuli muSaobisa, romlis Sedegad arqimandritma aleqsandrem marTlac SeZlo „afxazebis siyvarulis damsaxureba da maTi mxridan sayovelTao yuradRebis mipyroba“, „afxazebis keTilganwyobis mopoveba“ da a.S. werilidan Cans, rom mas gadawyvetili aqvs kvlav afxazeTSi gaagrZelos moRvaweoba „afxazTa sasikeTod da gadasarCenad“. arqimandrit aleqsandres es werilic pirvelad qveyndeba:

    „osuri sasuliero komisiis

    kancelarias #119, 1857 w. 20 dekemberi

    am Tvis 13 ricxvSi, afxazeTis episkopos gerontisTan Sesaxvedrad quTaisSi Camosvlis Semdeg, sul male, CemTan quTaisSi saCqarod movarda afxazi, eSkeTis afxazuri samrevlos dekanozis, imavdroulad afxazeTis mTavrisa da mTeli misi ojaxis sulieri moZRvris vasil miqaberiZis weriliT. mTavris davalebiTa da mTeli afxazeTis saxeliT is mTxovs, dResaswaulebze viyo afxazeTSi. sanaqebo, sasixarulo da sanugeSoa CemTvis amgvari miwveva. sanaqeboa imitom, rom movaswari afxazebis siyvarulis damsaxureba da maTi mxridan sayovelTao yuradRebis mipyroba. sasixaruloa imitom, rom afxazeTi da misi macxovreblebi ar iviwyeben Cems guliTad TanagrZnobas, romelic maqvs maT mimarT, misioneruli Sromac sruli warmatebiT dagvirgvinda; sanugeSoa imitom, rom SevZeli saqmianobis warmarTva mTavrobis gegmis Sesabamisad da gavamarTle Zvirfasi mTavrobis ndoba, anu movaxerxe Cemdami afxazebis keTilganwyobis mopoveba da mTielTa gonebaze Tavisufali zemoqmedeba. amasTanave, mxedvelobaSi mqonda mxolod is, rom momexdina SexedulebebiTa da grZnobebiT afxazTa Serwyma Cveni marTlmadidebeli eklesiis da samSoblos SvilebTan. ra Tqma unda, mTavrobisTvis sasiamovnoa imis Setyoba, rom erT-erTma sasuliero pirma romelmac rusuli eklesiis suliskveTebiT aRzrda CrdiloeTSi miiRo, mTavrobis arCevani da ndoba, rogorc misionerma, yvela TvalsazrisiT gaamarTla.

    me ar vikadreb Tavi movawono sakuTari warmatebebiTa da RirsebebiT, magram, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, vici is, rom afxazeTi da misi macxovreblebi CemiT, maTdami damokidebulebiT da saqmianobiT kmayofilni arian, rogorc amas Tavad saqmeebi adastureben; vici is, rom afxazeTi da misi macxovreblebi me damlocaven, sadac ar unda vimyofebode. sakuTar sicocxles da sakuTar Tavs samomavlod vandob uzenaesis gangebas da mTavrobis nebas.  mjera, gangebas nebavs, rom me afxazeTSi vmoRvaweobde afxazTa sasikeTod da gadasarCenad da me mas vemorCilebi, mTavrobisadmi madliere­biT gaciskrovnebuli Cemi guli mTavrobis yovel brZanebas da gankargulebas sixaruliT miiRebs. Cems  gulSi, ra Tqma unda, maqvs, mudam meqneba da mxurvaled Sevina­xav erTgulebis, siyvarulisa da morCilebis grZnobas mTavrobisadmi, afxazTa mimarT ki meqneba qristianuli siyvaruliT gamTbari TanagrZnoba da sibraluli.

    xsenebuli miwvevis gamo, romelic miviRe misi brwyinvalebis, afxazeTis mTavri­sgan misi sulieri moZRvris dekanoz vasil miqaberiZis meSveobiT da macxovreblebisgan im mxarisa, bedma Cemi moRvaweobisa da warmatebebis asparezad rom aqcia, me, uzenaesis Sewevnis imediT, uxerxul mogzaurobaze, afxazeTis mavne havaze, amJamindel Cvens mouwyobel pirobebze saubris gareSe da ise, rom ar davelodebi afxazeTis episkoposs, romlis molodinSic didi xania var, uSiSrad mivdivar afxazeTSi, samsaxuris adgilisken, sadac sxvebTan erTad saSobao dResaswauls Sevxvdebi.

    razec maqvs pativi vacnobo komisiis kancelarias mis maRalyovladusamRvdeloes mitropolit, saqarTvelos egzarqosisaTvis moxsenebis gasakeTeblad.

     

    afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTveli, arqimandriti aleqsandre“.

     

     

                                                                 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    ilia TavberiZe

     

    wmida mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre (oqropiriZe) da qarTuli

    galobis aRmdgeneli komiteti

     

    saqarTvelos egzarqosad 1877 wels movlinebuli iqna ioanike (rudnevi. 1877-82 w.). TanamedroveTa mier egzarqosis SefasebebSi azrTa sxvadasxvao­baa. ilia feraZe werda: „misive (egzarqosis) daxmarebiTa da SuamdgomlobiT daarsebul iqmna qarTuli enis kaTedra tfilisis sasuliero seminariisa da saeqsarxosos eqvs sasuliero saswavlebelSi didi yuradReba mieqca qarTuli saeklesio galobis aRdgenisa da swavlebis saqmes“... am RonisZiebaTa nebiT Tu iZulebiT gatarebis miuxedavad, ioanike qarTvelT moZule egzarqosad iyo cnobili. kaTolikos-patriarqi kalistrate (cincaZe) igonebs, rom studentobisas, 1891 wels, kievis mitropolitad daniSnul ioanikes wirvaze daswrebis surviliT miumarTavs ins­peqtor korolkovisaTvis. am ukanasknels ki damcinavi RimiliT ukiTxavs studenti kalistratesaTvis:

    „– ratom mogindaT mitropolitis naxva? mas xo Tqven, qarTvelebi, ar uyvardiT da, SesaZlebelia, axlac ar uyvarxarT!... sarwmuno wyaroebidanac vici, rom rodesac saqarTvelodan momavali mitropoliti jvris uReltexils miuaxlovda, mobrunda saqarTvelosken, pirjvari gadaiwera da Tqva, gmadlob, Sen, yovlad wmida qalwulo, rom SesaZlebloba momeci am velurebs cocxali gadavrCenodio“. mogvianebiT, studentma k. cincaZem sakuTar Tavze iwvnia mitropolitis agresia; roca gamosac­delTa siaSi qarTuli gvari amoikiTxa, ioanikem saswrafod daagdo sia da gamocda miatova.

    faqtia, rom ioanikem 1878 wlis ianvarSi mxari dauWira wmida mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres (oqropiriZe) iniciativas „Zveli qarTuli eklesiebri galobis aRmdgeneli komitetis Seqmnis Sesaxeb“. komitetSi Sediodnen arqimandriti makari (Tavmjdomare), mRvdeli grigol mRebriSvili, egzarqosis mgalobelTa gundis regenti auSevi da seminariaSi galobis maswavlebeli maWavariani.

    arqimandrit makaris cnobili mimarTvidan vigebT, rom galobis aRd­ge­nisa da misi notebze gadaRebis Taobaze winadadeba miiRo wminda mRvdel­mTavarma aleq­sandrem (maSin goris episkoposi) da mis gansaxorcie­leblad Tavis mxriv 50 Tumani Seswira Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis gamgeobas. „am safuZvelzed seminariis gamgeobam Seadgina ganaCeni, romelic daamtkica yovladusamRvdeloesma saqarTvelos eqsarxosad myofma evsevim. ama ganaCe­ni­saebr Sesdga komisia xuTTa samRvdeloTa pirTagan, romlis Tavmj­do­­mareT var daniSnuli me“ – werda arqimandriti makari.

    rogorc irkveva, egzarqos ioanikes komitetis Seqmnis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba winamorbedis mier daxvda miRebuli da Tanxmobac, albaT, imitom misca misi muSaobis gagrZelebas, rom mdgomareoba ar gaemwvavebina.

    komisias, pirvel rigSi, Tbilisis samRvdeloeba Seukrebia. maT sTxoves am saqmisaTvis Semweobis saxiT  TveSi xuTi maneTi gaeRoT. Tumca komisiis mier dasa­xuli amocenebisaTvis es Tanxa sakmarisi ar iyo. maT gadawyvetili hqondaT galobis notebze gadaReba, seminariasa da sasuliero saswavleblebSi galobis swavleba da sxva.

    „mivmarTavT yovelTa qarTvelTa, werda arqimandriti makari, – eklesiis samRv­deloTa da saero pirTa da vsTxovT umdablesad, raTa mogvcen am sagnis sisruleSi moyvanisaTvis, SeZlebisamebr, fuliT Semweoba erT droebiT anu TveobiT“.

    presaSi („droeba“, „iveria“) periodulad qveyndeboda cnobebi komitetis ang­a­riSze Sesuli Semowirulobebis Taobaze. 1878 wlis 1 oqtombridan 1879 wlis 16 maisamde 655 maneTi da 30 kapiki SeutaniaT, maT Soris: arqimendrit grigols – 6 maneTi, grigol orbelians – 20 maneTi, dimitri yifians – 25 maneTi, ioane naTlis­mcemlis udabnos – 30 maneTi,  sionis taZris sakrebulos – 48 maneTi, qaSveTis eklesias – 30 maneTi, anCisxatis taZars – 15 maneTi da sxva.

    1878 wlis 12 ianvars Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis sammarTvelom galobis aRmdgen komitets gadaugzavna andria mrevliSvilis mier notebze gadaRebuli ioane oqropiris wirvis wesi. martSi mRvdelma grigol WrelaSvilma gamogzavna mis mier Cawerili sagaloblebi. p. karbelaSvili aRniSnavs, rom „1877 wlis dekemberSi madlianma mamulisSvilma yovladsamRv­delo aleqsandre episkoposma warmaodgina seminariis sammarTve­loSi 500 ma­naTi jildod, vinc qarTul galobas notebzed dauwyebda werasa. aeSalaT fulis saRerReli, visac ki ram notebzed hqonda naweri: quTaisidan warmosdga b. mrevlovisagan notebzed dawerili wirvis galoba, agreTve b. WrelaSvilis naweri, magram orive Sroma daiwunes. komitetma 1878 wlis 9 ivniss seminariis sammarTvelos Semdegi daskvna warudgina: «Пригласить из Грузинской эпархии, где еще не исказались грузинское пение, одного специалиста, при содействии которого комитет считает возможным переложение грузинского пение на ноты». maT ganzraxuli hqondaT am mizniT guriaSi gaegzavnaT arqimandriti makari da diakvani auSevi.

    seminariis sammarTvelom 1978 wlis 3 ivliss es azri ar mouwona komitets da urCia guriis episkopos gabrielisaTvis mieweraT, moevlinebia TbilisSi saukeTeso mgalobeli“.

    wminda aleqsandre episkoposis arqivSi moviZieT guriis episkoposis, yovlad­samRv­delo gabrielis (tuskia) pasuxi TbilisSi galobis kargad mcodne specia­listis movlinebasTan dakavSirebiT:

    „Tqveno yovladusamRvdeloesobav, mowyaleo mwyemsmTavaro,

    urTierT ars marjuenes amborebasa Segkadreb da Tquens grZel Jamiers si­coc­x­les RmerTsa vsTxov; sxuaTa Soris gTxovT Tqvenis mSvidobis ambavi mibrZanoT, romelic iqmneba CemTvis Zvirfasi misaRebi... mgalobeli ebrZana maRalyovlad­usam­Rvdeloess, magram, romelica pirveli mgalobeli aris guriaSi anton dumbaZe  druJinaSi gaxlavs... da meore masTan mgaloblaT vargebuli mRvdeli maqsime Cxata­rai­Svili gaxlavs da upireb mas gamogzavnos Tu RmerTma qmna da sasiamovnoT [darCa]. sxua ar sjobs guriaSi  vgoneb arc sxuagan [...]

    sxvebr davSTebi Tqveni yovlad usaRmvdeloesobis mowyalis mwyemsmTavris mor­Cili mosamsaxure da RvTisadmi mlocveli.

    episkorosi guriisa gabrieli“

    maqsime CxataraiSvili uCxobis (ozurgeTis mazra) wmida giorgis eklesiis mRvdeli iyo; amave dros galobda ozurgeTis sakaTedro taZarSi.* episkoposi gab­rieli maqsime CxataraiSvilis Sesaxeb saqarTvelo-imereTis sinodalur kantoras swerda: „ es ukanaskneli Cemda pirispir cnobil ars kargis yofaqceviTa, mecadineo­biTa da bejiTobiTa samsaxurisadmi“.

    maqsime CxataraiSvilTan erTad TbilisSi galobis kidev sami mcodne melqise­dek nakaSiZe, nestor kontriZe da ivane xavTasi** Camovidnen.

    m. makari arximandritma Camoiyvana qalaqSi guruli mgaloblebi, romelT galobazedac unda Seadginon qarTuli notebis saeklesio galobisa. radgan karbe­lovis galobazed bevrs laparakoben, rom es aris namdvili qarTuli saeklesio galobao, amis gamo, Cvenis hazriT, urigo ar iqneba, rom notebis Sedgenis dros imis galobasac miaqcevdnen jerovan yuradRebas“, – werda „droeba“.

    asec moxda. 1879 wlis agvistos bolos komiteti mzad iyo moesmina qarTuli galobis ori mTavari kilos cnobili mgaloblebisaTvis: aRmosavlur-qarTlur kilos warmoadgenda grigol karbelaSvili da misi vaJebi – polievqtosi da vasili, xolo dasavlur-qarTul (guruli) kilos – maqsime CxataraiSvili da masTan erTad: melqiselek nakaSiZe, nestor kontriZe da ivane xavTasi.

    kamaTi imaze, Tu romel kilos ekuTvnoda upiratesoba, jer kidev XIX s. 60-iani wlebidan daiwyo: axla am diskusiam presis furclebze gadainacvla.

    qarTuli saeklesio galobis kiloebad dayofas jer kidev ioane batoniSvilis „kalmasobaSi“ vxvdebiT:

    „ioanem hrqva meTodis: WeSmaritad imeruli galoba dia sasiamovno xma ars da kargad Sewyobili, romel sakravsa miemsgavsebis.

    meTodi: marTals anbobT, qarTul galobazed imeruli galoba ukeT  aris Sewyobili, da Tqven romeli giswavliaT?

    ioane: me qarTulis kiloTi“

    iqve:

    „Zvelad qarTvelni galobdnen berZnulis xmiTa da mere qarTuli ukve galoba gaakeTa wmindam giorgi mTawmindel qarTvelman, romelic iyo berZnulisa da qarTulis enasa zeda mecnier da galobaTa da sakravTa Sinaca gamocdil da mere ufrore ganaSvenes imerTa da metadre guriaSi viTa aw arsca“.

    „iveriaSi“ vinme „aragveli“ moiTxovda karbelaSvilebis kilos Caweras, rad­gan man bodbis saswavlebelSi moRvaweobis dros daamtkica, rom galobis iSviaTi mcodne iyo: „saqarTveloSi TxuTmeti mgalobeli tyuilia, vinc wir­vis galoba icis, imas ver davarqmevT mgalobels. Cven marto erTi gvyavs namdvili mgalobeli, mRvdeli grigol karbelovi, romelsac mtkiced axsovs galobis kiloebi. esec Cvenda saubedurod moxucebulia“.

    „aragvels“ imave „iveriaSi“ l. iverielma upasuxa:

    „maxsovari mgaloblebi imasac ityvian, rom sul yvelgan rom gadavard­ni­la qarTuli galoba, guriaSi mainc  Senaxula da iqidgan mobrunebulao. ax­lac SeniSnulia, rom imereTSi yoveli axali simRerebi guriidgan da qobu­le­Tis mazridgan vrceldeba... arian ganTqmulni mgaloblebi, romlebmac orive kilo safuZvlianad ician, magram axalze galoben. galobis sakeTil­dReoT ufro kargi iqneboda, rom esenic Zvel kilos dabrunebodnen da imaze igalobebdnen. guriaSi anton dumbaZe, romelsac Zlier tkbil xmebsac uqeben, gansakuTrebiT bans da mRv. CxataraiSvili. imereTSi: niko meZmariaSvili amxanagebiTurT da megreliaSi – dito WalakaniZe“. iyo  sxva azric. k. maRraZe imave „iveriaSi“ werda: „ ra aris qarTl-kaxuri da ra aris gurul-imeruli kilo? rom aviRoT da SevadaroT erTmaneTs e.w. gurul-imeruli „sada kilo“ da qarTl-kaxuri. erTi da igivea, mxolod aqa-iq xmis mimoxvriT odnav ganirCeva erTi meorisagan“.

    Cveni amocana ar aris gavaanalizoT am polemikis WeSmariti da mcdari mxareebi. erTgvari SejamebisaTvis vixmobT Tanamedrove qarTul musikaTmcodneobaSi gakeTebul daskvnebs:

    v. gvaxaria: „miuxedavad didaqturi sxvaobisa, yvela kuTxis musikas safuZvlad udevs erTiani musikaluri qarTuli fuZe“.

    d. SuRliaSvili: „qarTuli galobis principul dayofaze Tu aris laparaki, igi unda daiyos sada da gavarjiSebul kiloebad da ara kuTxeebis mxriv, anu imerul-gurulad da qarTl-kaxurad radgan orive erTi da igivea, mxolod xmis mimoxvriT odnav ganirCevian erTi meorisagan“.

    aseTi kamaTis fonze daiwyo TbilisSi aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis mgalo­bel­Ta mosmena.

    1878 wlis 2 seqtembers anCisxatis eklesiaSi wmida aleqsandre episko­posisa da komitetis wevrTa winaSe maqsime CxataraiSvilma Tavis amxanagebTan erTad pirvelad igaloba. „droeba~ werda:

    „netav guSin 5 saaTze anCisxatis soboroSi hyofiliyaviT da genaxaT, Tu ro­gori mSvenieri qarTuli galoba gvqonda.

    guriidan mowveuli mgalobeli mRvdeli movida. gvsurda SegveTa­nasworebina, hgavs Tu ara imisi galobis kilo qarTlisas am mizeziT mravali mgaloblebi SevikribeniT iq.

    locvis Semdeg komisiis wevrni xalxiTurT SevgrovdiT arximandritis zalaSi, sadac daeswro am keTili saqmis moTave aleqsandre episkopozic“.

    makari arqimendritma Tavis mxriv TveSi 8 maneTis Sewirva aRuTqva mgalobelT. meore dRes, 1878 wlis 3 seqtembers, kviras, orbelianTa eklesiaSi orive gundma igaloba: „T. orbelianTa eklesiaSid iyvnen mowodebulni qarTuli galobis mcodne pirni: guruli mRvdeli maqsime CxataraiSvili da uf. karbelovi, Sesadareblad imisa, Tu romlis galoba iqmneba  umjobes notebzed gadasaRebad, anu yurTa smeni­saTvis saamo“. galobas daeswrnen grigol orbeliani, generali ioseb orbeliani, arqimandriti makari.

    „mgaloblebma miiqcies msmenelebis yuradReba, miT umetes, rom xSirad arTmevdnen erT meores piridgan dawyebul galobas. CxataraiSvilis galoba ufro saamo sasmeneli iyo. Tumc amas ar hyavdnen iseTi amxanagebi, romlebsac scodnodaT imis kilozed, magram is mainc xan maRal bans, xan dabals da xan wvrils ambobda da amiT gamohyavda amxanagebis naklulevaneba... rac Seexeba karbelovis galobas, zogierTi bevrad ar gansxvavdeboda, me ase vgoneb, rom guruli galobidan gardmokeTebuli unda iyves“.

    wirvis Semdeg T. grigol orbalians yvelani Caize miuwvevia da madloba gadauxdia am saqmis mzrunvelis, arqimandrit makarisaTvis.

    Semdegi Sekreba sionis sakaTedro taZarSi Sedga 1878 wlis 14 seqtembers. „marcxniv vgalobdiT Zmebi karbelaSvilebi, marjvniv guruli mgaloblebi“. 24 seq­tem­bers,  komitetis TxovniT, TbilisSi moxuci mRvdeli gr. karbelaS­vili Camovida. imave saRamos, anCisxatis taZris ezoSi, sadac arqimandrit makaris rezidencia iyo, gaimarTa komitetis sxdoma. mas daeswrnen wmida mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre, mRvdeli grigol karbelaSvili SvilebiT, guruli mgaloblebi... sxdomam mgaloblebs dauniSna gasamrjelo nakaSiZes oci maneTi da  danarCenebs TiTo Tumani.

    14 seqtembers sionis taZarSi Sesrulebuli qarTuli sagaloblebis Tavisebur Sejibrs gamoexmaura petre umikaSvili: „galoba sionSi ori dasisa iyo: marcxniT (CrdiloeTiT) sadac mudam mgaloblebi dganan, maRlob taxtze idga erTi gundi qarTl-kaxeTis kiloTi mgaloblebisa, marjvniv (samxreTiT) idga dabla meore gundi gurulebisa, romlebic imereT-guriis kiloTi galobda“.

    imis gasarkvevad, romeli kilo unda daiweros notebze, avtori miiCnevs, rom unda moewyos mgaloblebis gamokiTxva. mowveul unda iqnen notebis mcodne specialistebi. saqme, ra Tqma unda moiTxovs xarjebs. „am RonisZiebebisaTvis pirveli magaliTi mogvca yovladusamRvdeloesma aleq­sand­rem ormocdaaTi Tumnis SewirviTa, – axla saWiroa am magaliTs mivbaZoT da SeZlebisdagvarad SevswiroT amave sagnisaTvis“.

    erToblivi gamosvlebi momavalSic gagrZelda. 17 oqtombers „sionSi kidev iyo „gamosacdeli“ galoba gurulebisa; guSin, samSabaTsac, kidev amgvarive „gamosac­deli“ galoba iyo daniSnuli gurulebisa da karbelovisa“. sazogadoebas, rogorc Cans, mobezrda amdeni gamocda. „eklesia gamosacdel alagad ar gamodgeba“ acxadebs „droeba“ da moiTxovs saswrafod gairkves romeli kilos galobas eZleva upiratesoba notebze gadasaRebad. arqiman­d­ritma makarim 22 oqtombers sakuTar saxlSi moiwvia rogorc mgaloblebi, aseve msmenelebic“.

    TbilisSi darCenili guruli mgaloblebi – melqisedek nakaSiZe, nestor kontriZe da ivane xavTasi qarTuli galobis maswavleblobas iwyeben. galobis aRmadginebeli komiteti 1879 wlidan maT jamagirze xuT-xuT maneTs umatebs. sasuliero pirebisa da seminariis moswavleebisaTvis swavleba ufasod gamocxadda. kmayofili moswavleebi gazeT „droebaSi“ madlobas uxdidnen melqisedek nakaSiZesa da nestor kontriZes. isini 70-ze met Segirds amecadinebdnen. „b. b. mel. nakaSiZisa da nestor kontriZis SemweobiT veRirseT qarTuli xmebis gagonebas Cvens sasuliero seminariaSi... am keTil saqmisa da Cveni didad davalebisaTvis guliTad madlobas vuZRvniT saqveynod b. m. nakaSiZes da kontriZes maTi Sagirdebi seminarielebi“.

    am RonisZiebebis miuxedavad qarTuli galobis aRmdgeneli  komitetis muSaobas mainc akritikebdnen. „araferi xelSesaxebi ar gakeTebula, „groS-kapeikis saqme ki ara gaurigebia-ra“-o.

    1879 wlis oqtomberSi arqimandrit makaris qarTuli galobis aRmdgeni komitetis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis Tavi daunebebia. mas saTaveSi Caudga wmida mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre. komitetSi Sediodnen: arqimandriti grigol dadiani, mRvdeli aleqsandre molodinovi, mRvdeli grigol mRebrovi, egzarqosis gundis regenti, diakvani vasil auSevi da mixeil maWavariani. sayvedurebi presidan isev ismoda: „qarTuli saeklesio galobis saqme xeirianad ver midis... m. makaris xeli auRia am Jamad am saqmidamo. mgaloblebi xeirianad ver ekidebian Tavis saqmes... ar aswavlian aqaur diakvnebsao da yvelaze uaresi kidev is ariso, rom uf. maWavarianisagan Sedgenili zogierTi notebi qarTulis galobisa sruliad ar vargao“.

    am publikacias vrceli weriliT upasuxa wminda mRvdelmTavarma aleqsandrem. igi dawvrilebiT ganixilavs komitetis saqmianobas, dadebiTad afasebs arqmiandrit makaris  Rvawls: „arqimandritma makarim bevri iRvawa am galobisaTvis da uCvena mas mravalgvari Semweoba, romlisaTvisac igi  Rirsia Cven mier madlobisa“.

    polemikaSi, romelic Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis maswavleblis m. maWavarianis mier ioane oqropiris wirvis wesis notebze gadaRebis gamo gaimarTa, CaerTo melqisedek nakaSiZe; man daiwuna maWavarianis mier Cawerili sagaloblebi. igi ar moiwona musikisa da notebis mcodne savanelmac.

    wmida aleqsandre episkoposi mimarTavda qarTul sazogadoebas, Tu vinmes SeuZlia da esmis musika, gasinjos maWavarianis mier Cawerili sagaloblebi notebze. Tu igi kargia,  Tqvas,  Tu uvargisia, esec ecnobos sazo­ga­doebaso. apirebdnen note­bi peterburgSi, lamakinTan*, gaegzavnaT. sabo­lood, es namuSevari ar miRes.

    komitetis finansuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb sazogadoebas informa­cie­bi perio­du­lad miewodeboda. Tavdapirvelad komitets arqimandrit makaris dros Segrovili 340 maneTiT mouwia saqmianobis gagrZeleba. wmida mRvdel­mTavar aleqsandres Zalis­xmeviT Sio mRvimis monasters 120 maneTi Seuwiravs komitetisaTvis. Semowirulobebi SeutaniaT aseve: daviT garejis monastris arqimandrit grigols; man erTi mgalobeli sakuTar xarjze aiyvana; qvab­Taxevis monastris gamge mRvdel monazonma filaretma yovelwliurad 20 maneTi Seswira; bodbis ninos monastris winamZRvarma, arqimandritma evstratim – 15 maneTi; tfilisis eklesiebidan 32 maneTi Semodioda. magram es sakmarisi ar iyo. amitom, TxovniT mimarTes qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebas, romlis damfuZnebeli da wevri gaxldaT wmida mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre. es sazogadoeba yovelwliurad 120 maneTs swiravda mgaloblebs.

    sazogadoebis kritikul damokidebulebas galobis aRmdgeni komite­tis muSaobisadmi wmida mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre ase pasuxobda: „yvelas imasa vsTxov, rom am galobis pirobazed moTmineba iqonion. jer ar aris didi xani, rac es galoba da misi komiteti dawesda da me xom sul axali dadgenili var am xsenebulis komitetis Tavs mjdomared – nurc eniT da nurc kalmiT cudaT nuravin axsenebs am galobas, cud xsenebiT galobis atmosfero ar ganiwmindeba. me macaleT erTi, ori da sami weliwadi da vnaxoT, an galobis smaqme rogor wava da an notis Sedgenisa. naTqvamia Cqars ugviandebodeso. bolo ityvis yvelas da daagvirgvinebs saqmesa. iq­neba sTqvan ZeTa Zvelis iberiisaTa:  gamobrwyinda naTeli qarTul ekklesiur ga­lo­bisa gorizontsa zeda;  gadaRebul iqmna wyobilad ekklesiisa galoba noteb­zeda“.

    magram, sazogadoebis kritikuli damokidebuleba ar icvleboda. wmida aleqsandre episkoposis komitetis Tavmjdomareobidan gadadgomis Tanave (1884 w.) Jurnal „mwyemsSi“ daibeWda werili, romlis avtori saeklesio galobis notebze gadaRebis saqmeSi brals episkoposs sdebda. redaqcia minawerSi aRniSnavda, rom „imedi gvaqvs, rom is Segvatyobinebs, Tu ramdeni fuli moiboWa galobis aRsadgenad da sad inaxeba es fuli~.

    wm. mRvdelmTavarma aleqsandrem sapasuxo werili ramdenime punqtad Camoaya­liba:

    „1. me winaaRmdegi arasodes ar vyofilvar qarTuli galobis notebze gada­Re­bisa. piriqiT, egzarqosis nebarTviT, Tavad vkisrulob qarTl-kaxuri kilos saekle­sio galobis aRdgenas sakuTari xarjiT.

    2. arasodes vyofilvar winaaRmdegi guruli kilosi. vambobdi da axlac vambob, rom „gurulis kilos“ galoba kargia Tavis samSobloSi, guriaSi. xolo saqarT­ve­loSi (qarTlSi da kaxeTSi) guruli galoba ver moidgams fexs, rogorc es daamtkica garemoebam da gviCvena gamocdilebam.

    3. saeklesio galobis komitetis winaaRmdegi ara var, magram uars vacxadeb Tav­m­j­do­mareobaze.

    4. fuli Segrovda saswavleblebSi qarTuli galobis Sesaswavlad, da ara no­teb­ze gadasaRebad“.

    SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom sazogadoebis aseTma damokidebulebam afiqrebina episkoposs, daetovebina Tavmjdomaris posti. amasTan, egzarqosma pavle  lebedevma kategoriulad moiTxova komitets an Tavisi mizani gaemarTlebina, an daxuruliyo. ufro ki, daxurvisaken ixreboda. 1884 wels, arqimendritebis grigol dadianisa da makari mataTaSvilis winadadebiT saegarzaqososTan Seiqmna specialuri komisia, romelsac unda ezruna sagaloblebis notebze gadasaRebad da dasabeWdad. komisiis sxdomas qarTuli sazogadoebis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebi – akaki, aleqsandre yazbegi, giorgi wereTeli da sxvebi daeswrnen. sxdomaze sakiTxis winaaRmdeg gamovida sasuliero seminariis reqtori Cudecki. Tavisi antiqarTuli ganwyobilebiT cnobili reqtori mogvianebiT studentma laRiaSvilma mokla. am faqtis gamo egzarqosma pavlem ambionidan dawyevla qarTveli eri, rasac sazogadoebis aRSfoTeba mohyva. saprotesto werili egzarqoss dimitri yifianma miswera, ris gamoc igi ruseTSi gadaasaxles da gaurkvevel viTarebaSi mokles.

    komisiis sxdomaze gamosvlisas Cudeckim aRniSna, rom am „keTilganzraxul da RvTisagan kurTxeul saqmes didi dabrkoleba aqvs. mcodne pirebisagan vici, rom qarTuli galoba imdenad Taviseburia, sxva xalxis galobisagan imdenad gansxvavdeba, rom misi Cawera arsebuli rusuli notebiT SeuZlebelia. mogvixdeba qarTuli galobis Sesaferisi samusiko niSnebi gamovigonoT. am saqmes didi Sroma, didi dro da didi xarjic dasWirdeba; samwuxarod, qarTul Rarib eklesias aseTi xarji ar SeuZlia gaiRos“.

    mRvdelma auSevma Cudeckis mourideblad miaxala, rom es azri mcdari iyo. Cu­dec­kim cotaTi kilo Secvala, magram mainc imave azris dasabuTebas Seudga: „SeiT­vi­seT keTilxmovani, RvTisagan nakurTxi da dalocvili slavuri galoba“. amas dams­wreTa didi aRelveba gamoiwvia.

    „akaki wamoxta, Cudeckis sityva Seawyvetina da ganacxada:

    – Tqven SegiZliaT Cvens ganzraxvaze pirdapir uari TqvaT, es Tqveni uf­lebaa. magram Tqven Cvens wmidaTa wmidas tlanqad SeexeT; Tqven fiqrobT, rom Cven qarT­ve­le­bi ramdenime xnis Semdeg, Tqveni locva-kurTxeviT, slavebad gadaviqceviT. es didi Secdomaa! saqarTvelos didi istoria, mdidari uZve­lesi kultura da Cveni sakuTari winsvlisaTvis gawalduli gza aqvs. uxeS Za­las am gzis Secvla araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar SeuZlia. asi wlis ganmavlobaSi qarTvel ers Tavisi saxe ar Seucv­lia da Seucvlelad SeurCenia. SemdegSiac Seir­Cens. qarTveli eri Tavis Seudarebel musikas, romelSiac Tavisi ukvdavi suli aqvs Caqsovil-Caqarguli, uTqvenodac mouv­lis da ganaviTarebs, Tqveni daxmareba ar sWirdeba!“ akakis Semdeg giorgi were­Te­li gamovida. aleqsandre yazbegma gamoacxada, rom komisiaze Tqmuli detalurad gamoq­veyndeba gazeTebSio. Cudeckim isRa moaxerxa, rom komisiis sxdoma daxura.

    komitetis Tavmjdomareobidan gadadgomis Semdeg wmida aleqsandre episkoposs ar Seunelebia zrunva qarTuli galobis aRdgenisa da notebze gadatanisaTvis. 1884 wlis zafxulSi man xelSekruleba dado Tbilisis musikaluri  saswavleblis direqtorTan. i. ipolitov-ivanovTan. mas unda Caewera basili didisa da ioane oqropiris wirvis wesi da es samuSao 1886 wlis 1 oqtombrisaTvis unda daesru­lebi­na. guriaSi myofma episkoposma egzarqoss amis Taobaze 1884 wlis 3 maiss miswera. saubari Seexeboda galobis „qarTul-kaxur kilos“. egzarqosma Tanxmobis pasuxi imave wlis 16 ivliss acnoba yovladsamRvdelos. ipolitov-ivanovma 400 sagaloblis notebze gadaReba 2000 maneTad ikisra. mas unda daxmarebodnen mRvdlebi polievqtos da vasil karbelaSvilebi, a. molodinovi, grigol mRebrovi. samwuxarod mxolod 76 sagaloblis Cawera moxerxda.

    1896 wels ipolitov-ivanovma sagaloblebis krebuli sinodSi warad­gina; sinodma ki daskvnisaTvis sasuliero seminarias gadasca. 1897 wlis 7 dekembers Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis eklesiaSi specialurma komisiam moismina da dadebiTi werilobiTi daskvniT dasamtkiceblad sinodSi gagzavna. 1899 wels wmida aleqsandre episkoposis dafinansebiT sagaloblebi daibeWda „maqsime SaraZisa da amxanagobis stambaSi“. maqsime SaraZes, stambis garda, saRmrTo wignT sakiTxavi kabineti hqonda daarsebuli, sadac melqisedek  nakaSiZis xelmZRvanelobiT galobas swavlobdnen. maTTan xSirad stumrobda episkoposi. wmida eqvTime aRmsarebeli (kereseliZe) igonebs: „xSirad moiyvanda dek. petre koWoSvili episkoposs aleqsandres da SemosvlisTanave gaxarebuli ityoda: gamarjoba Cveno saqarTvelos Svilebo! qarTlelebo, gurulebo, megrelebo, imerlebo, osebo! ecadeT, ecadeT! xolo Cven... SemosvlisTanave „Rirs arssa“  vugalobdiT da mere dasxdebodnen samusaifoT.

    sicocxlis bolo wlebSi yovladsamRvdelo aleqsandrem guruli galobis aRsadgenad guriaSi saeklesio galobis kabineti daarsa. Tavisive xarjiT moiwvia ori mgalobeli: melqisedek nakaSiZe da svimon molariSvili. maT daevalaT, rom xalxisaTvis ufasod eswavlebinaT galoba. mgaloblebi rig-rigobiT dadiodnen guriis soflebSi da xalxs aswavlidnen.

    Tu imdroindel presas Tvals gadavavlebT, wmida mRvdelmTavar aleqsandres uamrav damsaxurebaTa Soris, romelic mas miuZRvis qarTuli eklesiis winaSe, xazgasmiT gamoirCeva qarTuli saeklesio galobis gadarCenisaTvis gaweuli Rvawli.

    „aba, biWo, miTxari, – romeli ufro mogwons am sam saganSi, Tanac TiTebzedac CamosTvlida: saekklesio galobis aRdgena, darRveuli monastrebis ganaxleba, Tu Cveni sasuliero mwerlobis nawerebis beWdvao?! – araerTxel ukiTxavs mas CemTvis da sxvaTa mravalTaTvisac. – „Tqveno meufebav! samive erTi erTmaneTzed ukeTesia da aba, imas ra ejobineba, rom samive eseebi ar daaSoroT erTmaneTs! „eriha, eg xom mZime da Zneli sazidi uRelia CemTvis, Svilo, magram mjera, rom gulwrfelad meubnebi magas da marTladac ar daSordebian egeni,. ra uyoT? RmerTi mowyalea! ori Sauris muSasa, mis dReSi ara uSavsa“. ai, ra sasoebiT da mtkice imediT Seudga yovladsamRvdelo aleqsandre qarTuli galobis notebze gadaRebis saqmes“ – aRniSnavs vasil karbelaSvili.

    wmida aleqsandre episkoposis mier saeklesio galobis gadarCenisa da notebze gadatanis gegma mxolod nawilobriv iqna Sesrulebuli. magram yovladsamRvdelo episkoposs gauCnda didi imedi am saqmis kargad warmarTvisa da dasrulebisa: 1881 wlis 5 aprils, bzobas, igi mounaxulebia cnobil momRerals filimon qoriZes da Sehpirebia qarTuli sagaloblebis notebze gadaRebis saqmis dawyebas. „am keTili ganzraxvisaTvis madloba mivuZRveni b-n qoriZes da amas iqiT, imedia, rom notebzed gadaRebis saqme eklesiur galobisa kargaT wavides“, – werda wmida mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre.

    iwyeboda axali epoqa qarTuli saeklesio galobis istoriisaTvis.

     

    wignidan – TavberiZe ilia, XIX s-is qarTveli moRvaweebi da saeklesio galoba, Tb., 2005;

     

     

     

     

     

     

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres

    werilebi

     

      yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre episkopozi rogori piruTvnelic laparakSi gaxldaT, iseTive iyo werilebis  weraSic. rogorc saubarSi, qebasa Tu mdurvaSi iyo ukiduresi qarTveli mamulis Svili, igi werilebis weraSic imave kilos emorCileboda. maTis werilebis ramdenime maqvanda, JamTa viTarebis wyalobiT 1892 w. Semdeg igini davkarge aqa-iq mgzavrobis gamo. SemrCa erTi werili, sakuTriv  maTis xeliT dawerili, romelsac vbeWdavT aq mitom ufro, rom mkiTxvelma icodes am SesaniSnav mRvdel mTavris sulis viTareba da is cdac, Tu igi rogor dastrfoda Tavis samSoblos da qarTveli eris dawinaurebis da warmatebis saqmes, ai esec werili, romelic miviRe ozurgeTidam 1882 w. roca yovlad samRdelo aleqsandre iq guriis eparqias ganagebda.

     

    1882 w.

    Tqveno patiosnebav, ufalo zaqaria WiWinaZe!

    madli uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi iyavn Tqvenzeda.

    werili Tqveni miviRe, raisaTvis friad madlobas giZRvni, me didad moxaruli var, rom Tqven did Rirsebas aZlevT im saqmeTa, romelTac me Sevdgomilvar; ese igi, qarTul Zveli da axali mwerlobis adgenasa, egreTve, galobisa da sxvaTa.

    erTi sityviT me Sevudeqi qarTuli enisa da literaturis aRdgenas, da Tquen Zlier kargaT mimxvTarxarT da agiwoniaT, rom me Cvenis samSoblo qarTulis-enis aRdgomis, dafuZnebis da ganviTarebis sarbielzed gamovsulvar. asparezi ese, Cemi  azriT da TqveniTaca, friad mSvenier da sasargeblo ars. qarTulis istoriis gori­zon­­tsa zeda warweriT arian maTi saxelebi, romelnica eseT wrfelaT ixwvodden qarTulis enisaTvis,  maSasadame istoria SeniSnams awmyo droSidac ima patriotTa,  romel­Taca ara  daviwyebiaT samSoblo ena da arian moRvaweni misTvis.

    Tqven mwerT da gazeTSiac iwerebiT, rom partreti giSovniaT qarTuli leqsi­ko­nis avtorisa, saba sulxan orbelianisa, da gsurT es leqsikoni, romelsac me vabeWdineb, gaamSvenieroT im partretiTa. me Tanaxma var amazed da madlobasac gwiram. magram, radgan partretis dabeWdva iafaT ar dajdeba maS leqsikonsac fasi unda miematos. me vabeWdineb or sruls wignad an Tu 2400 wignsa. TiTo wigns unda davasvaT fasi 2 maneTi. da aba axla radgan mag partrets abeWdineb raodensame eg­zemp­liars magaTi fasi raRa damijdeba da leqsikoni, TiTo egzempliari, maSin rogor unda gavyidoT. amis pasuxi  male macnobe. amasTanave macnobe ra droisTvis Tavdeba dabeWdva mag leqsikonisa, kniaz rafiel erisTavs CemTan sityva aqvnda, rom es ivlisis Tve rom daileoda mag leqsikonis beWvdac gaTavdeboda. Cqara wigni momwere da mag leqsikonisa garemoeba macnobe simarTliTa.

    ai, es aris exla Tfilisidam momivida werili, romelSic mweren rom rafiel erisTavis leqsikonis beWdva mxolod mexuTe asomdin, ese igi, e miuyvaniao. aba ra vsTqva, es ambavi Zlier mwyenia. me TavSi Zriel maimedebda erisTavi da axla saqmiT sul sxva gamovida, TiTo asos, TiTo da oroli Tve mounda, aba maS rodis daTavdeba mag leqsikonis beWdva. etyoba raodenime weliwadi gastans?!!

    axla me amas gwer Sen werilzed: Sen iwerebodi daviT garesjaSi mivdivaro, iq karg wignebs viSovnio da romeli davabeWdvinoT, xom xedav leqsikons aRar gviTaveben, me rom aqeT wamovedi mand yvela gaiyina. dasabeWdaT amovarCie leqsikoni petriwisa, magram ar vici kaci vin iqneba wrfeli da marTali, rom mivandoT amis beWvda. kaci unda iyos swavluli da patrioti.

    am wignis pasuxi momwere.

    Tqveni keTilis mosurne. 1882 welsa marTveli guriis eparqiisa episkoposi aleqsandre.

        q. ozurgeTi.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


    qarTuli enis dacvis Sesaxeb…

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    werilebi aleqsandresadmi

     

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres auarebeli werilebi aqvnda sxva da sxva pirTagan miwerilebi, zogi qarTulad, zogi rusulad, aseTi werilebi piruTvnelad aRniSvnen yovlad samRvdelos aleqsandre episkopozis qeba-didebas. amitom aseT  Zvelis werilebidam Cven aq mogvyavs es ori Zveli werilic, romelic ar iqneba meti dabeWdvisa Tumca igini wined arian dawerilebi.

    maRal-yovlad usamRvdeloeso didebulo mwyemsT-mTavaro aleqsandre

     

    Tqveni xangrZlivi samsaxuri mwyemsT-mTavrobis xarisxSi isre mZlavri, nayofieri da cxdia, rom man moicva TviT mesxeTic ki; is mesxeTi, romelic Zvel didebis nacvlad Zlivs naperwkalsaviT-Ra bJutavs. diax,  Tqvenma madlma ganaRviZa igica, raTa Cven-mier muxl modrekiT eamboros Tqvens wmida da zeciuris madliT Semosils marjvenas, mogilocos ama xnovani samsaxuris SeZleba da Seavedros yovelTa arsTa arsebas gangrZeleba dReTa TqvenTa, raTa  SegesrulebinoT yoveli Tqveni keTili survili da dawyobiloba.

    Cven ar gavbedavT dasaxelebas im didi madlisa da sikeTisas, romelic Tqvenis didbunovanebis Tbili  gulidgan mofenila xalxTa sulisa da xorcis   saSvebe­lad. ar CamovTliT imitom, rom did-bunebovanTa saqmis Tqma enis wveriT Znelia. guli  ufro SeZlebuli da marTlieri metyvelia da swored yvelasTan erTad Cveni gulic RaRadebs Tqvens sikeTes da sikeTiles. vityviT mxolod, rom Tqvena brZan­debiT trfialeba Cveni, siqaduli Cveni da magaliTi WeSmariti qristianebi, WeS­mariti kacT-moyvrebi, WeSmariti mamuliSvilisa.

                                                 dekanozi dimitri xaxutaSvili.

           xels awers sablaRoCinos 13 mRvdeli, oTxi diakoni da 13

           mefsalmune.

     

     

    Tqveno yovlad usamRvdeloesobav mRvdelmTavaro aleqsandre!

     

    dRes, rodesac mTeli saqarTvelos rCeulTa Svilni gamouTqmeli sixaruliT da didis aRtacebiT miegebnen Tqvens 35 wlis samRvdel-mTavro samsaxuris Ses­rulebas da qeba didebiT moixsenies Tqveni dauRalavi Sroma da Rvawli samSoblos da mis wm. ekklesisadmi, mec, erTi uRirsi Svili, vkadnierdebi, Tqveni meufebis winaSe da sparseTis sazRvridgan, wrfelis guliT gilocavT, Tqveno meufebav, 35 wlis iubiles dResaswauls da Sevedri RmerTs, raTa dReni Tqveni meufobisa ganamravlos erTi asad da didxans ghyoT dRegrZeli sasiqadulod da saimedod saqarTvelos wminda ekklesiisa da  mis mrevlisa. saqarTvelos eri ar daiviwyebs Tqvens RvawliT Semosil saxels; igi Tavis istoriis furclebzed oqros asoebiT aRbeWdavs Tqveni  meufebis saxelsa da Rvawlsa. saukunod iqneba agreTve dauviwyari Tqveni saxeli goris mazris erT patara sofel disevSi. Tqven samSobloSi, sadac Tqven aRizarded da sadac Tqven sTeseT imdeni keTili, disevelebi Tqveni meufebis Tvis tomni, ar daiviwyeben Tqvens saxels da Rvawls, vidremde ar aRigveba dedamiwis piridgan Tqveni meufebisagan aRSenebuli da ganaxlebuli Zeli WeSmaritis ekklesia, vidremdis qoriviT Tavs dacqeris disevis da kulbiTis are mares Tqvenis meoxebiT da CagonebiT ganaxlebuli kulbiTis mRvTis mSoblis ekklesia. bednieri brZandebiT Tqveno meufebav, radgan Tqvenis TvaliTve ixileT, rom cudad ar Cauvlia Tqven ganwirulis sulis kveTebas da Tqvengan gavlili ekliani gza ar darCenila ukvalod da Tqvens moZmebs Tqvenis magaliTad mxned uvliaT erTxel sul Tqvengans gavlil gzazed; Tqven rogorc keTili mwidnavi dResve xarobT, radgan Tqvengan darguli widnebi, Tqvenve moisTvlieT veamborebi ra Tqvens kurTxeul marjvenas, Tavdablad movaxseneb Tqvens meufebas, rom 9 maiss Cemdamo rwmunebul ekklesiaSi gardavixede samadlobeli paraklis Tqveni meufebis dRegrZelobisaTvis.

    davrCebi Tqveni meufebis locva-kurTxevis msurveli Tqveni erTguli morCili mona

                                       mRvdeli aleqsandre tatunaSvili

     

     

    aleqsandre episkopozi da megruli ena

     

    yovlad samRvdelo episkopozi aleqsandres cxovrebidam bevri sayuradRebo ambebi da mogonebani daiwereba. aseTi sayuradRebo cnobebi dRes CvenSi bevrs mRv­dels da bersac exsomebaT, magram, samwuxarod, weriT ki aravina swers, aseTi mogo­nebani naTels mohfens yovlad samRvdelos Rirseuls WeSmaritebas da dids mamuliSvilobas, iqneba dReis Semdeg sxva da sxva pirT moigonon amis ase Zvirfas mogonebani.

    1903 w. rogorc gazeTebma gvauwyes, saubari atyda maszed, rom megrelni qarT­velebi ar ariano, megruli ena qarTuli enis Ziri fesvi ar ariso. amas lapara­kobd­nen Turme zogni iseT qarTvel megrelnic, romelnic qarTul istoriis asparezed mwerloben, moRvaweoben, erT aseT pirs, maSindelis egzarxosisaTvis sxva da sxva cnobebi uambnia, egzarxosi utyuilebia istoriulis cnobebiT. egzarxosma saqarT­velos istoriis ar mcodnem yovelive simtyune daijera, marTlad miiRo da amitom mTqmels WeSmaritebis aRdgenis gamo madloba uTxra. sisworisaTvis xarisxic dahpirda.

    moxda SemTxveva, yovlad samRvdelo egzarxosi foTSi gaxldaT, aq qalaqma sadili miarTva, aqve iyo is qarTveli moRvawe, romelic egzarxos umtkicebda, rom megruli ena sxva ariso. roca aseTi piris sadRegrZelo dalies maSin mas aleqsan­d­re episkoposma vrceli istoriuli sityva uTxra da mere ase daabolava:  Милостивый Государь! Желаю Ваьъ быть  искреннимъ, не двоедушнымъ, не  вилять хвостомъ, изъ за генеральства не продавать, родного языка», egzarxosma aleqsandre episkopozis sityva patriotobaSi miiRo, amisTvis egzarxosi, arc aris gasamtyuvni am enebis saqmis ar mcodnes eTqva, rom –  «И дъйствительно онъ будет генераломъ». mere aleqsandre episko­posma egzarxi istoriulad daarwmuna rom Tqven gatyuilebeno „me ara mgonia iyos erTi iseTi megreli, romelic ityvis, rom is qarTveli ar ariso“.

    ase mkacrad icavda qarTuli enis Zirs – megruls _ episkoposi aleqsandre. amis Sesaxeb aseTive piruTvneli gaxldaT yovlad samRvdelo episkoposi grigol dadiani.

     

     

    aleqsandre episkopozi da mela qarTvelni

     

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre episkopozs or ena mRvdeli, beri, da qarTve­lebi Zriel sZulda.  1880 w. 14 ianvars, dimitri baqraZis winaSe, erTi qarTveli mRv­d­lis Sesaxeb es sityva sTqva:

    ioanike egzarxosi saqarTveloSi rom movida sionSi, pirvel Sexvedris, erTma mRvdelma (gvari da saxeliT sTqva) sityva uTxra. wirvis Semdeg egzarxosma hkiTxa: mamao, Tqveni rusuli enis kilo me ise momewona, rom minda gkiTxoT Tu Tqven tomiT vin xarT, rusi, qarTveli, Tu osi? ... am mRvdelma miugo: Tqveno meufebav! me samwuxa­rod qarTvelad var dabadebuli, xolo suliT wminda rusi var da xorciT qarT­veli... ioanike egzarxosi amazed gakvirda da iqve uTxra: – „Sen, magisTana sityvis TqmiT, ar unda iyo kai kaci“. mRvdels Zriel ewyina es. mere SeuZvra didis cdiTa.

    mis Semdeg es mRvdeli egzarxos sul imas Sehficavda, rom qarTvelebi mZuls, qarTuli ena mejavreba, rusuli miyvars, rusul enas vadidebo.

    gavida ramdenime xani, am mRvdels coli moukvda. dasaflavebazed egzarxi da mec mimiwvia, anderZis agebis Semdeg, am mRvdelma coli qarTulad daitira. egza­rxosma Cumad wamCurCula: aki eg ambobda, rom qarTuli ena ar miyvars, qarTvelebi mejavrebao, coli qarTulad daitirao“ – mere es mRvdeli kargad gaacno egzarxs aleqsandre episkoposma da masTan moaxsena: me miyvars saqarTvelo, qarTveli eri, misi ena da istoria, es me ar miSlis, rom masTanave miyvardes ruseTi, ruseTis eri, viyo morCili da erTguli rusis mTavrobis da masTan menatrebodes ruseTis amaRleba, dawinaureba. egzarxosma aseTis gulgaxsnili laparakisTvis didi madloba uTxra da aqo qarTveli eri.

     

     

     

    aleqsandre episkopozi mowafeTa winaSe

     

    egzarxosi paladis da reqtor nikolozis dros, Tbilisis semenariis mowa­feni aRelden, mizezi amis maTi cxovrebis gaumjobesebis davalebas Seexeboda, mTe­li kviris ganmavlobaSi Segirdebi gaficulebi iyvnen. igini verc egzarxosma daawynara, verc reqtorma, verc mTavrobis kacebma.

    egzarxosis davalebiT da TxovniT aleqsandre episkoposi mivida semenariaSi mowafeebs moelaparaka. meore dRes mowafeebi ukve dawynardnen da swavlas Seudgnen. es ambavi Cven kargad viciT, xolo is ki ar viciT, Tu am dros ra ostaturad moiqca yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre, rogor daawynara mowafeni, ra gvari  sityva uTxra da sxvani. is ki viciT kargaT, rom yovlad samRvdelo episkopozs mowafeTaTvis mSvenieri darigeba miucia, masTan kai sityva uTqvams.

    es da am gvar saqmeni yovlad samRvdelos bevri aqvs daxarjuli Cvens moswav­leeb­zed. amis ambebi kargaT exsomebaT im pirT, vinc maSin, Semdeg da winedac scxov­robden da swavlobden semenariaSi. maT exsomebaT bevri ram yovlad samRvdelos moqmedebis Sesaxeb, aq mxolod mogoneba aris saWiro da dawera. amas Tu yuradReba mieqca mcodne pirTagan, maSin bevri ram cnoba ainusxeba da gamoqveyndeba aleq­sandres Sesaxeb, rac Tanamedrove TaobisTvisac didad mniSvnelovnad daSTeba.

     

     

    aleqsandre episkoposi da vladimer mitropoliti

     

    saqarTvelos egzarxos vladimers mitropolitoba misces, ruseTSi daniSnes. wasvlis dros aleqsandrem mitropolits miuloca da es sityva uTxra: – „mogilocam  mitropolitis xarisxs. gauwyebT, rom Tqven iyaviT ubralo beri, mere episkoposi da egzarxosi saqarTvelos ekklesiisa. saqarTvelos ekklesia imodenaT maRalia, Zveli da mZlavri, rom mis madlma Tqven Tavis asparezzed ase  dagawinauraT da dRes mitropolitis xarisxiT  mibrZandebiT ruseTs. es umaRlesi xarisxi Tqven moganiWaT saqarTvelos Zvel ekklesiam da amitom unda umadlode mas da ar daiviwyo am Zveli ekklesiis amagi.

    egzarxosma amazed pasuxi miugo...

     

    aleqsandre episkopozi da erTi maswavlebeli

     

    erTma qarTvelma maswavlebelma erTi semenarieli mowafe VI klasis (v.d.) eg­zarxosTan daabezRa: is mowafe winaaRmdeg wignebs kiTxulobs. garda amis unaxes dawerili qaRaldzed isic, rom saqarTvelo ruseTma Caylapao. egzarxos uTqvams: maS aqedan sCans, rom qarTvelebs rusebi gZulTo. maswav­lebels uTqvams: egre gamodiso. am dros aleqsandre episkoposi meore oTaxSi mjdara, es laparaki gaugia, maSinaTve Sesula maTTan da uTqvams.

    „maswavlebelo, styui Sen da atyuileb egzarxossac. qarTvelebi jer ar gagiJebulan, rom TavianTi mfarveli qristian rusebi sZuldes. sircxvili SenTvis, rom aseT Worebs laparakob. winaaRmdeg wignebs ruseTSi rusebi ufro kiTxuloben, es winaaRmdegi wignebic, romlebsac aq qarTvelebi kiTxuloben, rusuli aris, igi ruseTidam modis da ara qarTuli. Sen ver miCveneb verc erT qarTvels mowafes rom imas rusebi sZuldes. amitom pasuxis mgebeli unda iyo winaSe mRvTisa. aseTi ram mimaCnia Worad yovlad  samRvdelo! me gamoviZieb yovelives mogaxsenebT saqmis sinamdviles,  garemoebas. xolo aseT pirebis Worebs ki nu daujerebT, eseni amiT sargebloben, angariSi aqvsT rame. qarTvelebs  rusebi uyvarT da eyvarebaT kidevac, maT sZulT cudi kaci rogorc qarTveli, iseve rusi da sxvani. me waval exlav semenariaSi da gavigeb yovelives dawvrilebiT.

     

     

    aleqsandres winaSe dimitri episkopozi

     

    dimitri episkopozi (abaSiZe) foTSi daniSnes  droebiT. am dros episkopozi aleqsandre avad gaxldaT. dimitri episkoposi aleqsandresTan gaxldaT Camomxtari, aleqsandre episkoposi mokeTda fexzed dadga. dimitri episkoposTan kai ganwyobileba aqvnda, mamaSviluri. erT dRes laparaki aqvnda. aleqsandre episkoposma hyvedra yvela is qarTveli, romelnic istoriulad  Cvens ar mcnobs ruseTis mTavrobis umaRles pirebs xSirad atyuileben da miT sargeblobeno.

     dimitri episkopozma (abaSiZe) miugo: me Tu vatyuilebdi, miT qarTvelebisaTvis xom ara damiSavebia ra, survili mqonda, rom episkoposoba male mimeRo da  egzarxs da sinods Tu vatyuilebdi, miT qarTvelebs xom araferi gaufuWdaT. am sityvebs dimitri episkoposi daCoqili eubneboda da Tan patiobas sTxovda. aleqsandrem ase uTxra mokled.

    „kaci Tavis qveynis da eris winaSe siyalbes ar unda emsaxurebodes, xarisxis miRebis gulisTvis, or ena ar unda iyos. Sen, pirveli saqarTvelos upirvelesi ojaxis Tavadis Svilis STamomavalTagani xar. mere universitetSi swavla daamTavre, mis Semdeg akademiaSi Sexvel da iqac daamTavre swavla kai saxeliT, masTan bunebiTac niWieri kaci xar da rad yalbobdi. Cvens winaaRmdeg rad  laparakobdi cudaT,  uamisodac xom miiRebdi Sens episkoposobas. ade, RmerTma gapatios da dReis Semdeg eride or enaobas da siyalbes“.

    dimitri episkoposma Sehfica, rom me rac mindoda, episkoposoba miviRe, dReis Semdeg arafers viqm winandebursa, viqmnebi erTguli da WeSmariti adamiani. amazed sTqva kvalad yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandrem:

    „dimitri episkopozi  niWieri episkopozia, masTan jer axalgazrda. Tu ram Sescda, es SeiZleba marTlac Tanamdebobis miRebis sul wasulobiT mouvida. advili SesaZlebelia, rom odesme magan egzarxosobasac miaRwios. masTan SeiZleba xasiaTic gamoicvalos, gaixsenos Tavisi mSoblis rZe da ZuZuebi. saqarTvelo da misi Zveli istoria, iyos keTili da erTguli mRvdelmTavari Tavis samSoblo ekklesiis da masTanve iyos madidebeli ruseTis bednierebis da erTgulebis. es sulac ar dauSlis erTi meores. SeiZleba diax, dimitri episkopozi gamokeTdes, mobrundes swore gzazed. exla viRa raSi unda atyuilos“.

     

     

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre episkoposi

    mdabioTagan Tqmuli

    mravalTa Soris kvlav moevlina:

    tanjulsa ersa madli RvTiuri

    uxvad mowyale Rvawlis da Sromis

    viT rom manana nami ciuri.

     

    ar dauzogavs Rone da Zala,

    RvTis Tayvanis mcem xalxis mfarveli,

    cas Suqi hfina mis sispetakem

    da ersa Tvissa sazrdo yoveli.

     

    daidga Zegli, Zegli ukvdavi...

    umanko eris saTayvanebi.

    kacT siyvaruli da saTnoeba,

    qristes moZRvrebis Sesadarebi.

     

    siWabukidgan man idva tvirTad,

    RvTis Tayvan cema, xalxT samsaxuri

    da asre ganvlo mravali weli:

    ar dasdo jvari mama-papuri.

     

    aRzarda Svilni eris msaxurni,

    guliT mamacni, grZnobiT spetakni,

    dauzarelni gmirni mamacni

    SesaniSnavni mxedarT-mxedarni.

     

    vera ra waSlis misgan gakvaluls,

    medgraT gakafuls gzas ekliansa,

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandresas

    uxvad mowyales da madliansa.

     

                                                giorgi qiziyeli

     

     

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres

    mdabioTagan Tqmuli

    ocdaTeqvsmets wels eweodiT

    cxovrebis xvedrsa,

    SehRaRadebdiT CagrulT aRdgenas

    TviT zeciersa...

     

    igic madls gfenda da gaZlevda

    niWsa keTilsa.

    ze aRadgenda dRes dacemul

    saqarTvelosa.

     

    uSiSradac win miuZRodiT

    guliT mxurvali,

    ver gaSinebdaT mtrisa Zleva

    cremlSi curvai...

     

    da Tan  mogdevdnen samSoblois

    gmirTa gmirebi,

    ar udrkebodnen mrisxane mters

    qarTvlis Svilebi.

     

    hoi sul mnaTo, gadmogvxvede brwyinvale TvaliT,

    win gagviZexi gza gvaswavle sarwmunoebis,

    xelSi ipyariT basri sityva da wminda jvari,

    gamoaRviZe didi iveri dRes cocxal mkvdari...

     

    xeleCo da xerxis nacvalaT,

    xelSi aviRe kalami,

    cxovrebisgan  daCagrulma

    met ver giZRveni salami...

     

        xelobiT durgali ioseb n. simonovi. (simoniSvili)

                                                    sityva

    Tqmuli aleqsandre episkoposis dasaflavebaze.

    1907

    saerTo movlenaa rom adamiani esalmeba am wuTis sofels sazogadoebi­saT­vis SeumCnevlad. mas mxolod uaxlobelesni naTesavni da nacnobni gamoitireben,  saflavamdis miacileben da Semdeg cota xnis ganmavlobaSi da isic xandisxan moigoneben da mwuxarebiT aRivsebian. gamonakliss amisTana movlenaTagan Seadgens mxolod uumciresi ricxvi bednier pirTa, saxeldobr im pirTa romelnic bunebiT uxvad dajildoebulni arian sxva da sxva gvar niWiTa. moRvaweoben sazogadoebriv asparezze da xalxisTvis sargebloba moaqvT. amisTana pirTa Soris adgili giWiravs Senc, yovlad usamRvdeloeso episkoposo aleqsandre! Senma sikvdilma ara marto SenTa xorcielTa moyvasTa gulSi gamoiwvia mwuxareba, aramed bevri qarTveli daaRona. qarTveli eri Sen gafasebda, pativs gcemda; fass gdebda imitom, rom mis winaSe Sroma migiZRvis. Sen xels uwyobdi xalxSi qarTul saRvTismetyvelo mwignobrobis gavrcelebas; Sen aRadgine da gaamSveniere Zveli monastrebi da taZrebi; Sen eweodi RaribTa da zrdidi moswavleTa! Sen miec qarTvel ers mRvdel-mTavari, suliT da guliT qarTveli, Sen gviCvene magaliTi maRal zneobriv cxovrebisa; Sen gvaswavle, rom  adamiani miuxedavad Tvis umaRles da brwyinvale sazogadoebriv mdgomareobisa sadaT, martivad unda cxovrobdes. roca Sen iyav guria-samegrelos eparqiis mmarTveli da me axalsenakSi sasuliero saswavlebelSi vmsaxurobdi mRvdel monozonis xarisxiTa, roca Sen senakSi moxvidodi, gaCerebas Cems mouwyobel da civs oTaxSi amjobinebdi, Tumca bevri kargi ojaxis patronebi gTxovden maTTan misvlasa; beri berTan unda mivideso – ityodi xolme Sena. bevrni ugunurni Sens ubralo cxovrebas awerden Sens viTomc da siZunwes – sawylebi ra rig scdebodnen! gana Zunwi ewodeba im kacs, romelmac Tvisi SeZleba moaxmara qvriv oblebsa, monastrebs, da mwignobriobas? ai es monasteri, es taZari RaRadebs, Tu rogori Zunwi iyavi Sena. netavi SenisTana Zunwi aTiode iyves CvenSi!

    yovlad usamRvdeloeso! gvrwams, rom RmerTma Sen saukuno bednieri cxovreba mogago. Sen sdgexar winaSe RvTisa da mis netarebas sWvret. darwmunebulni varT, rom Sen qarTvel ers xSirad moigoneb da SesTxov ufalsa, rom ganamtkicos masSi siyvaruli, Zmoba, erToba, daamyaros masSi mSvidoba, da warumarTos mas ganaTlebaSi.

     

                             alaverdis episkoposi daviTi.

     

     

     

     

     

    sityva

    Tqmuli, arqimandrit ambrosis

     

    „egreT  hbrwyinevdin naTeli TquÀni winaSe kacTa,

    raTa ixilnen saqmeni TquÀni keTilni da adidebdnen

    mamasa TquÀnsa zecaTasa“ (maTes sax. T. 5, 16).

     

    esec erTi msxverpli am mokle droSi. gaumaZRar da Seubralebel sikvdilma saqarTvelos mostaca yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre, Tumca kaci RvTisagan dawesebul bunebis kanons ver gadauva da yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandrem kidevac gadaacila Tvisis xangrZliv sicocxliT im zomas, romelic dadebulia rCeulTaTvis (fsalm. 89, 10), magram am nair zegardmo madliT cxebul adamianTa micva­lebas kacis guli mainc ver urigdeba. mas unda yovelTvis hyavdes igi samSoblo mxaris nugeSad.

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres Tavdadebuli moRvaweoba mSobliur eklesiis da samSoblo mxaris aRorZinebisaTvis udidesi misabaZi magaliTia Cven qarTvelTaTvis, misi sxivosani saTnoebiani saxe mudmivi saukeTeso gzis maCvenebelia.

    „egreT brwyinavdin naTeli Tqveni winaSe kacTa, raTa ixilnen saqmeni Tqvenni keTilni da adidebden masa Tquensa zecaTasa“-o, gvibrZanebs qristes wmida moZRvreba da gviTiTebs am didebul cxedarze, – gansvenebulis xangrZ­liv, saTnoebian da saxelovan moRvaweobaze.

    romeli erTi gansvenebulis saTnoebiT savse xangrZliv, namdvil qristianuli cxovrebis mxares unda mivaqcioT yuradReba?! Cven ar Zal-gviZs am mokle sityvaSi savsebiT davaxasiaToT misi Rirs-aRsaniSnavi cxovrebis yvela mxareebi, amisTvis saWiroa meti dro da meti niWi da mWermetyveleba.

    gansvenebulma yovlad samRvdelom gvaswavla Cven, ramdenaT SeiZleba am ukuRmarT droSiac viyoT namdvili qristianeni, – qristianul idealebis matarebelni. rogorc matarebeli WeSmariti qristianuli siyvarulisa, – im siyvarulis, romelic yvelas erT rigaT unda efinebodes, – ar arCevdes axlobels ara axlobelisagan, – romelic unda aviwyebinebdes pirad interesebs da abedvinebdes sicocxlis Sewirvas moyvsisaTvis, – rogorc matarebeli amnairi siyvarulisa, is Tvisis cxovrebiT gvimtkicebs, rom es qristesagan mis mimdevarTaTvis daxatuli ideali am qveynad SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes. jer isev studentobis dros, rodesac yazanis mxareSi  xolera mZvinarebda, gansvenebuli uSiSrad da Tavganwirulad emsaxureboda am saSineli seniT SepyrobilT ganurCevlad maTi Camomavlobis da sarwmunoebisa. misi Tavganwiruleba moZmeTaTvis, misi mouridebloba am saSinel da metadre maSin Tavzardamcem senisa acvifrebda yvelas, – rac xazgasmiT aRniSnulia TviT yazanis akademiis istoriaSi. es erTi faktic mSvenierad axasiaTebs yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres qristianuls cxovrebas. aseTive darCa gansvenebuli ukanasknel wuTamdis. is Tavisi xangrZliv  cxovrebaSi am qvey­nad mravalferad asrulebda am diad mcnebas, – mcnebas moZmeTa siyvarulisas.

    misi qvelmoqmedeba, misgan aRdgenilni qarTvelTa kulturis maCve­nebeli naSTebi, misgan gamocemuli saRvTis metyvelo da samecniero Cven winaparTa nawarmoebni, misis safasiT aRdgenili mSobliuri galoba, misi Sroma da siqvele mamulis SvilTa aRzrdaSi, – berobis aRdgena-gaZlie­re­bisaTvis zrunvaSi da mravali sxva misi amnairi Rvawli yvelasagan cnobilia. misi Rrma sarwmunoeba cxovrebaSi ganxorcielebuli, siyvaruli samSoblo qveynisa TviT misi qristianul sarwmunoeba, uSiSroeba am soflis ufalTa da ZlierTa mxilebaSi da mravali sxva misi saTnoebiani sulis Tvisebani xdida mas namdvil warmomadgenlad im Zveli Cveni wm. mamaTa, romelTa mraval­mxrivma Rvawlma daicva Cveni sarwmunoeba, ena da erovneba mozvavebul-auarebel mterTagan. yvela amaebze ukve bevri Tqmula da dawerila da mec aq aras vityvi.

    vityvi oriode sityvas mxolod imaze, rac aq ar Tqmula, – gansvenebulis mociqulebriv moRvaweobaze afxazeTSi. RmerTma pirvel xanebSi mas arguna samsaxuri da moRvaweoba am saqarTvelos ganapira mxareSi jer rogorc afxazTa Svilebis aRmzrdels, Semdeg rogorc misioner-mqadagebels da bolos rogorc mwyemsT – mTavars. is mudam TavganwirulaT emsaxureboda afxazTa moqcevis saqmes, – ar zogavda sakuTar saSvalebas SkolaT daarsebisaTvis, – Tavis xarjiT zrdida afxazTa Svilebs da amzadebda maT mRvdelobis xarisxSi samoRvaweod, – medgrad icavda samRvdeloebis da samwysos interesebs, uxvad eweoda qvriv-obolTa, mis da samwysos Soris arsebobda mamaSviluri kavSiri, dafuZnebuli WeSmarit qristianul siyvarulze. mas ar uyvarda mdidruli cxovreba, scxovrobda TiTqmis egreTve sadaT, rogorc erTi ukanaskneli Raribi mis samwysoTagani. es sada cxovreba, es xalxTan siaxlove xdida mas namdvil Zvel mSobliur eklesiis mwyemsT-mTavarTa msgavsad.

    moviyvan erT magaliTs imisa, Tu rogori  gavlena hqonda gansvenebulis amnair cxovrebas xalxzed, ranairi uzomo ndoba hqonda damsaxurebuli TviT mahmadian afxazTa Soris. 1866 wlis amboxebis Caqrobis Semdeg afxazebis umravlesoba iZulebuli gaxda gadasaxlebuliyo osmaleTSi.

    am ubedur dros, roca afxazTaTvis yvela qristianis saxelis matarebeli sazizRari iyo, mxolod yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres hqonda afxazebTan kavSiri. mxolod mas uziarebdnen TavianT Wir-varams, mas endobodnen.

    ai, am xanebSi mwyemsT-mTavarTan Semodis erTi mahmadiani afxazi, saxelad urusi, Tvisis Tormeti wlis SviliT. rodesac yovlad samRvdelom Cveulebrivi alersiani kiloTi hkiTxa uruss mosvlis mizezi, ukanasknelma moaxsena Semdegi: „SenTan movedi, keTilo mwyemso da mamao! me samudamod veTxovebi samSoblos, mivdivar osmaleTSi sacxovreblad da Cemi vaJi unda davstovo SenTan. meti ara gamaCnia ra, coli da sxva Svilebi adre davkarge. ar vici ra momelis ucxo mxareSi, magram mainc vstoveb Cem sayvarel samSoblos. ar minda Cemi ubedureba gavuziaro Cems erTad-erTs Svils da SenTan moviyvane, mowyaleo mamao, vici miiReb, aRzrdi qristianulaT da iqneba bednieri“o.

    Tval-cremliani mama gamoeTxova sayvarel Svils, romelic gansvene­bulis meo­xe­biT da safasiT aRizarda da mRvdlobaSi didi sargebloba moutana qristianobas afxazeTSi.

    am faqts ganmarteba ar sWiria. amnair ganwyobilobas samwysosTan didi nayofi mohqonda. iwyes afxazTa qristianobis miReba, romelic kidec dam­Tavrda TiTqmis 80–ian wlebSi netar xsenebuli afxazeTis meore mociqulis dros. amis Semdeg ganvlo sakmarisma drom. qristianobis saqme progresiulad denis nacvlad regresiulad mimdinareobs. ukanaskneli cnobebiT, ramdenime sofelma ukve uaryo qristianoba. mizezi cxadia: ar arian aleqsandre-gabrielisebri mociqulni.

    netar-saxsenebelo mwyemsT-mTavaro, sxva Seni mraval mxriv RvawlTan erTad amasac ar daiviwyebs qarTveli eri, afxazeTis qristiani nawili da iqauri samRvdeloeba.

    ganisvene, qarTvelTa mamao da keTilo mwyemsTTmavaro, zegardmo madliT cxebulo moRvawev, aRmaSeneblad wodebulo, – ganisvene am Sengan ganax­le­bul-gamSvenebul taZarSi. es wm. taZari iqneba saukuno Senganve Seqmnili nivTieri Zegli Sens saflavze da yovel qarTvelis gulSi ki gedgmeba samu­da­mo uxilavi Zegli.

    iloce, Cveno axalo RvTis winaSe Suamdgomelo, – iloce sxva Cven wm. ma­meb­Tan erTad samSoblo mxaris qristianulad da kulturulad aRyvave­bi­saTvis. amin.

                                                 Arqimndriti ambrosi (xelaia – avt.).

     

    sityva

    Tqmuli yovlad-samRvdelo aleqsandres dasaflavebaze

    didebulo mwyemsT-mTavaro!

     

    didi xani ar gasula mas Semdeg, rac ukanasknelad ginaxule me Sen am, Sengan gamSvenebul da ayvavebul, monasterSi, romlis xavs-mokidebuli kedlebi uneblieT magonebda saxelovan warsuls Cveni, aw dakninebul, eklesiisas, im eklesiisas, romlis samsaxurs Seswire Sen Seni xangrZlivi sicocxle. maSin SenTan erTad vigonebdi Rvawlsa da moqalaqeobas CvenTa Zveli drois mwemsT-mTavarTa, exla ki, sami Tvis Semdeg, movsulvar aq, raTa am mRvime-maRaroebTan erTad viglovo Casveneba im cxovel-myofel varskvlavisa, romelic naxevar saukunis ganmavlobaSi ara Tu oden anaTebda, aramed yvelas da yvelafers anaTlebda.

    diax, meufeo, Sen mTeli ormocda aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi anaTlebdi qristianobriv swavla moZRvrebiT Sens mSobliur ersa da eklesias. monastrulma, jvar mtvirTvelma saqarTvelom mecxramete saukunis damdegs TiTqos dastova ZvelTagan naanderZevi gza da anazdeulaT piri icvala. sarwmunoebriv SemoqmedebiTi grZnoba da niWi, romliTac cxovel iyo da Zlier igi Zvelad, SesamCnevad Sesustda. ricxvi im ganaTlebul samRvdelo pirTa, romelnic saTaveSi udgen Zvelad qarTul ganaTlebas da qmnidnen qarTul kulturas, Semcirda, TiTqos moispo. monasteri aRaravis izidavda, ris gamo is dacarielda da SesaniSnav eklesiebTan erTad nangrevebaT iqca. sworeT am dros gamodi Sen samSoblo yanaSi samuSaod, mxnedac Seudeqi saqmes. Sen iyavi pirveli, maRal swavliT aRWurvili, qarTveli, romelmac berobis mZime uReli itvirTe, rom miT gageadvilebina Tavis TavisTvis samsaxuri mSobliur ganaTlebisaTvis. jer swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg, Sen TviTon, piradaT, Caudeqi saTaveSi axalgazrdobis swavla-ganaTlebis saqmes, – amas daamowmebs afxazeTi, quTaisi da sxva kuTxec Cveni qveynisa, xolo rodesac miwveul iqmen saeklesio ierarqiis umaRles xarisxze, am saqmes emsaxurebodi mas Semdeg materialurad, mraval-gvar da ise SewirulebiT sxva da sxva samoswavlo dawesebu­lebaSi. mudam dauRalavi, praktikul saqmianobiT SeboWili, Sen ar ekuTvnodi mRvdel-mTavarTa im jgufs, romelTac TavianTi kabinetur nawarmoebiT da qadagebaTa krebuliT surT emsaxuron samwysos, Tumca am mxrivac ar dagizogavs Zal-Rone gamogeqveynebia da gagecno mkiTxveli sazogadoebisTvis saukeTeso saero da sasuliero nawarmoebni Cven didebul winaparTa. garda amisa Sen kargad gqonda Segnebuli, rom Cven swavla-ganaTlebas Zvelad qmnida gansakuTrebiT ori umTavresi faktori: monastrebSi beroba da soflad ki deda, es ojaxis kera, romelic wera-kiTxvis nakverCxals gauqroblad icavda da gadascemda SvilTa da Svilis-SvilTa, amisTvis pirvel yovlisa Sen gansakuTrebiTi yuradReba miaqcie CvenSi berobis miZinebul sulis gacxovelebas da, marTlac, Seni magaliTis mibaZviT ara erTi da ori RvTis-mosavi, swavliTa da codniT aRWurvili beri da monazoni SeeZina saqarTvelos. Sen darwmunebuli iyavi, rom, rogorc Tevzi ver momravldeba uwyloT, ise beroba umonastroT, amisTvis gul-modgineT miyavi xeli Zvel eklesias da monaster-lavraTa ganaxlebas da bevrgan, sadac wineT yvav-buTa Cxavili ismoda, dRes atkbobs yurs momxiblavi  xma qarTul saeklesio galobisa, romelic Seni meoxebiT da saSvalebiT gadarCa daviwyebas, ganaxlda da daibeWda. rac Seexeba dedaTa mniSvnelobas swavla-ganaTlebis win-wawevaSi, Sen es aRniSne samocian wlebSi, rodesac Tavi wamoyo CvenSi sasuliero wodebis qalTaTvis sakuTar saswavleblis daarsebis sakiTxma. am sakiTxis aRZvraSi da ganxorcielebaSi Sen migiZRvis upirvelesi Rvawli. Senis daxmarebiT da macadineobiT 1878 wels TbilisSi daarsda iseTi dawesebuleba, romelmac dRevandel dRemde gamouSva ramodenime aTasi ganaTlebuli qali da sadac Seni uxvi Sewirulebis meoxebiT ara erTi da ori umweo da oboli gazrdila: me maqvs saxeSi Tbilisis eparqialuri saqalebo saswavlebeli, romelmac dRes gamomgzavna me aq, raTa Tayvani vsce Sens gacivebul gvams da gTxovo evedro ufalsa da yovlad-wmida RvTis-mSobels mis warmateba da ayvavebisaTvis.

    aseTi Rvawli migiZRvis Sen, meufeo, wmidao, samSoblos winaSe, romlis keTil-dReobisaTvis Sen, rogorc giTxra erTxel Cvenma aw gansvenebulma mgosanma, „gSioda da ar sWamdi, gwyuroda da ar svamdi, gcioda da ar Tbebodi“. ai, aseTi gul-Sematkivari mama unda dafaros dRes Cvengan Savma miwam, viTarca erTxel Rrubelma winaswarmetyveli ilia TvalTagan elisesaTa; Cven meti ara dagvrCenia ra, rom elisesaebr muxl-modrekiT SemogtiroT, gvamo patiosano: „mamao, mamao, etlo iveriisa da mxedaro miso“, gardmogvigde xaleni Seni, rom man daamkvidros CvenSi da ganamtkicos suli simSvidisa, qvelobisa, uangarobisa da samSoblosadmi siyvarulisa, romeli­Tac gamWvalul iyavi Sen am qveynad.

                                                 dek. k. kekeliZe

     

     

    sityva

    dekanoz n. TalakvaZisa

     

    Cvens laJvardovan samSoblo cas zedi-zed swydeba istoriis usazRvro sivr­ceSi cviva warsul saukunis misi mnaTobni, qarTvel eris Wirisufalni, mom­vlel-patronni...

    Cvenma samSoblom mecxramete saukunis dasawyisidam politikur-sazogadoebriv cxovrebis axal pirobebSi Casdga fexi. Cveni qveynis bed-iRbali, misi marTva  gamgeoba erT morwmune ruseTis xelSi gadavida; garna axalma mTavrobam, mzrunvelebma Taviseburad Sexedes Tviss missias saqarTveloSi da amitom iwyes Cveni qveynis wes-wyobilebis TavianT gemoze gardaqmna, Cveni eris sulis ganwyobilebis, mis aTasi wlobiT SemuSavebul kulturis rusul darjakSi Camoyalibeba, yvelgan da yvelaferSi CamoerTva Cvens ers iniciativa, Seswyda misi SemoqmedebiTi niWis Tavisufali varjiSoba. Cvenma erma istoriulad miiZina; garna es Zili, Tu is xangrZliv – saRaTas Zilad gardaiqceoda, uqadda Cvens ers erovnul sikvdils, erovnul gadaSenebas.

    magram, ara, – qarTvelma erma, imav mecxramete saukunis ganmavlobaSi SesZlo wamoeyenebia mTeli wyeba, mTeli rigi Tviss aw sasiqadulo SvilTa, romelnic ar daibnen samSoblo istoriis axal xanaSi; maT kargaT Seignes da ersac Seagnebines, rom saqarTvelom mosWama gmirobis xana, rodesac is xmliT xelSi ganuwyvetliv igeriebda yovel mxridan Semoseul uricxv mters da dadga xana kulturul brZolisa; am brZoli­saTvis angariSis gasawevad ki saWiroa sxva iaraRi, – iaraRi mecniere­bisa – swavla-aRzrda-ganaTleba; saWiroa am iaraRiT ise aRiWurvos qar-Tveli eri, rogorc is wineT TaviT fexebamdis iyo Camjdari xmal-dambaCa far-CaCqanSi da mters mexiviT Tavs ecemoda...

    qarTvel eris aseT qadagTa, qarTvel eris TviTcnobierebaSi momyvanTa gunds ekuTvnoda aw gansvenebuli y-d samRvdelo aleqsandrec. – saqarTvelos hyavda mefe daviT aRmaSenebeli, imav saqarTvelos dabeCavebul ekklesias aw  hyavs mRvdelmTavari aleqsandre-aRmaSenebel ganmaaxlebeli! afxazeTidan dawyebuli Cvens samSobloSi ar aris iseTi cotad-Tu bevrad Cvens istoriaSi cnobili saydar-monastrebi, romelTa aRSeneba-ganaxlebisTvis ar mieqcios gansvenebuls jerovani yuradReba da uxvi SewirulebiT ar gaemSvenebios da ar gadaerCinos ganad­gu­rebisagan. ai TviT aTcamet siriel mamaTaganis Rirsi Sios savane, sadac gansvene­bulma ukanasknelad aRmoifSvinva da Caabara Tvisi suli macxovars, – es gamSve­nebul-aRdgenili savane y-d usamRvdeloesi aleqsandres uxvi Sewirulebis, mamob­rivi mzrunvelobis nayofia!..

    movigonoT y-d samRvdelos safasiT ganaxlebulni zedaznis monasteri, jvris ekklesia mcxeTaSi, daviT garejis monasteri, TviT mcxeTis aT-Tormet mociqulTa didi taZari, romlis ganaxlebas man Cauyara saZirkveli Tvisis uxvi SewirulobiT: movigonoT is Sewirulebac, romelica am cota xanSi gadasdo gansvenebulma qarT­velT pirvel qristian mefe miriansTvis Zeglis asagebaT da mravali sxva.

    ara nakleb yuradRebas aqcevda gansvenebuli qarTul mwerlobis Zvel xelT­nawer  nawarmoebTa dabeWdva-gamocemas, romelsac moamxara didZali safasi da miT keTili magaliTi misca sxva qvelmomqmedT – ganagrZon es kulturuli saqme gansvene­bulisa.

    movigonoT moswavle axalgazrdobaze zrunva gansvenebulisa, mas ramdenime stipendia aqvs daarsebuli sasuliero saswavlebelSi, seminariaSi Tu dedaTa eparqialur saswavlebelSi; ramden Rarib mowafisTvis Seumsubuqebia gansvenebuls swavla-ganaTlebis miReba!..

    qvel moqmedebiTi siuxve gansvenebulisa friad sagulisxmoa da STamomav­lo­bisaTvis misabaZi. imisi ubralo, da WeSmariti beruli cxovreba, iSviaTi movlenaRaa Cvens fufunebis droSi: TviTon eZleoda moTminebas, marxulobas, xarjavda Tavis-Tavze sul cotas, rom rac SeiZleba meti saq­vel-moqmedo saqme Seesrulebia.

    CvenTvis, gansvenebul y-d usamRvdeloesi aleqsandre mecxramete saukunis cocxal matianes warmoadgenda, – daibada ra warsul saukunis TiTqmis dasawyisSi gansvenebulma mxned gadmolaxa meoce saukunis pirveli wlebi; – is mowame gaxda ukanaskneli wlebis mZlavr moZraobisa mTels imperiaSi; iman Tavisi TvaliT dainaxa, rom qarTveli  eric ar CamorCenia qveynierebas, mas mraval feri da mraval – Sinaarsiani ganviTareba miuRia, rom isic mZlavrad Cabmula kacobriobis win svlis ferxulSi Tvisis sakuTari RirsebiT da naklulovanebiT...

    gansvenebuli Tvisis xangrZliv sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi mowame iyo iveriis ekklesiis daqveiTebisa, damcirebisa, iveriis mwyems-cxovarTa erTmaneTze daSo­rebisa, rasac SedegaT mohyva qarTvel eris sarwmunoebrivi ganelTbileba. Siga da Sig sarwmunoebrivi gaveranebac. – xedavda yovelive amas gansvenebuli, guli ukvdeboda-emduRreboda, magram uRono iyo SebrZoleboda rkinis jaWvebiT SeboWil mdgomareobas – swored im droSi, rodesac gansvenebuls mwyemsmTavruli moRvaweo­be­bis mxne samsaxuri SeeZlo, is sasuliero mTavrobas qor-episkopozad hyavda sionis taZris ezoSi dayenebuli. mas araviTari ufleba ar hqonda Cveni eris sar­wmunoebriv cxovrebaSi aqtiuraT Careoda, Tumca, sadac ki xeli miuwvdeboda, Tamamad da mourideblad amxilebda da hgmobda  yovelive cud mxares Cvenis cxovrebisas; is aseT SemTxvevaSi, mociqul pavles mcnebisamebr, ar dagidevda arc dros, arc adgils, arc ZlierTa ama soflisaTa...

    ar SegviZlia ar movixseno is oTxiode weliwadi, romlis ganmavlobaSi gans­venebuls mindobili hqonda guriis eparqiis mmarTveloba. am oTxiod weliwadsTvis xangrZliv sicocxlis saukeTeso xanad sTvlida gansvenebuli! is siamovnebiT da Tan Tval-cremliani moigonebda xolme Tu rogor Seetkbo-SeukavSirda is patara gu­riis samwysos, Tu Semdeg rogor gaTiSul iqmna mwyemsi samwyosasagan – rodesac guriis eparqia gaauqmes, guria samegrelos eparqia Seqmnes da am eparqias dauyenes episkopozad grigol dadiani, xolo y-d samRvdelo aleqsandre kvlav TbilisSi daabrunes isev qor-episkopozad.

    Cvenma sasuliero mTavrobam mxolod Rrma moxucebulobis dros miando gansve­nebuls xsenebuli eparqia. magram es ukanaskneli iseT mdgomareobaSi daxvda y-d samRvdelo aleqsandres, rom imisi marTva-gamgeoba, wesierebaSi moyvana aRemateboda mis moxucebul Zal-Rones. amitom eparqiis sve-bedi faqtiurad xelT epyraT isev biurokratiul eparqialur kancelariis damqaSebs da TiTqmis imav da iseT pirT, romelTac grigol episkopozis dros gaaZvaltyaves eparqiis samRvde­loebac da samwysoc...

    Rrma moxucebuli episkopozi borot adamianT xSirad SehyavdaT SecdomaSi; pativcemul episkopozis zurgs ukan amofarebuli bneli Zalebi ndobas borotad iyenebdnen, mis usazRvro gulkeTilobas, pirad interesebiT dabrmavebulni, sasuliero Tu saero pirni, erTmaneTs TiTqos ejibrebodnen ukanonobis da uzneobis CadenaSi, – episkopozs ki aCvenebden Tavs rogorc uerTgulesni misi msaxurni da ideiuri „sazogado moRvaweni“ namdvilad ki igive cru sazogado moRvaweni, aSkarad dascinodnen moxucis guluxvobas, miss usazRvro gul-keTilobas – amisda miuxedavad, Cven SegviZlia Tamamad vsTqvaT, rom zneobriv sifaqizes gansvenebulisas odnavadac ar mikarebia raime WuWyi, samwysos TvalSi isev Zvirfasi, isev saTayvanebeli da sasoebis momgvreli mRvdel-mTavari iyo...

    am ukanasknel sam wels gansvenebuli gandegilobda Sios wminda savaneSi, saidanac bejiTad Tval-yurs adevnebda is Cveni qveynis av-kargsa. gansvenebulis gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobda wamoyenebuli qarTvelT saeklesio sakiTxi – iveriis ekklesiis damoukideblis, TviT-gamorkvevis uflebis aRdgena, rom miT, erTxel morwmuned cnobili, qarTveli eri kvlav Semokrebs Tviss ekklesiis garSemo, daubrundes qristes saxarebis moZRvrebas, romelsac Cveni eri, da ara Cveni mxolod, ase xelovnurad CamoSorebul iqmna da Tan da Tan ufro Sordeba...

    moxuc-gandegilis suli aRaSfoTa sasiqadulo mgosnis da adamianis – ilias veragulma sikvdilma. moxucs gulma aRar mouTmina, moikriba  ukanask­neli Tvisi Zal-Rone da pativi sca didebul mamuliSvils – usisxlo msxverplis SewirviT, saflavis pirze micilebiT da mamobriv cremlebis datirebiT – exla ki TviT ganisvena! – SeuerTda sulmnaT didebul winaparT, rom maTTan erTad Seavedros RvTis mSobels wilxdomili – dRes gadabugul-aklebul-damSeuli misi saqarTve­lo – gvakmaros amdeni tanjva-vaeba, gadmogvxedos Tvisis dedobrivi mzrunvelobiT, aRgvidginos mSobeli ekklesia. raTa erTiTa piriTa da erTiTa guliTa RirsebiT vadidebdeT Zesa missa da ufalsa Cvensa ieso qristesa, amin.

     

     

    sityva

    dekanozi kalistrate cincaZisa

     

    meufeo wmidao! uamravi xalxi, romelic gars axvevia jer kidev gauciebels Sens cxedars da moelis Sengan ukanasknels locva-kurTxevas, Seukrebia aq naTelsa saqmeTa SenTa keTilTa., romelTa Sens sicocxleSi uxvad sTesdi, mwyemso keTilo. magram ama saqmeTa CamoTvliT me ara msurs Seni Sewuxeba. Sen ar giyvarda Sens saqmeebze laparaki. mec vkadnierdebi da movagoneb SenT pativis mcemelT  erT mxares Senis moRvaweobisas, saxeldobr, Sens zrunvas ber-monazonebis ganaxlebisaTvis CvenSi.

    marTalia dRes ber-monazonobas pativi aRara aqvs sazogadoebis TvalSi, magram amis mizezi aris is, rom monazonobis umetesobam uRalata Tavis pirdapir daniSnulebas. dRes Tu monazonobis umravlesobas Seadgenen usaqmod cxovrebis moyvareni, winad ase rodi iyo. winad monazonoba da sazogado asparezzed moRvaweoba sinonimebi iyvnen. winad qarTveli Tu stovebda dedas da mamas, debsa da Zmebs, saxl-kars da mezoblebs da midioda monaster-udabnoSi, igi am SemTxvevaSi Tavis TavisTvis rodi zrunavda, aramed Tavs swiravda mamuls, viwro  farglidgan gamodioda farTo asparezzed samuSavod, xels uwyobda eris ganviTarebas, ganswavlas, gaTviTcnobierebas, ganZlierebas da ganfaqizebas,  patronobda qvriv-obolT da glaxakT-davrdomilT, imeds unergavda gulSi da nugeSsa scemda tvirT–mZimeTa da roca igini gadauxvevdnen WeSmaritebisa da simarTlis gzas. amisaTvisac iyo, rom sanam ber-monazonoba Tavis daniSnulebas emsaxureboda da movaleobas asrulebda, – saqarTveloc izrdeboda da hyvaoda,. xolo roca ber-monazonoba daeca, – saqarTveloc daqucmacda, danawilda, daeca...

    yovelive es gaTvaliswinebuli gqonda, meufeo wmidao, da amitomac Seni Zal Rone Sealie WeSmaritis ber-monazonobis aRdgenas da ganaxlebas CvenSi da ganaxlebisaTvis zrunva Sen qvaTa da agurTagan, WerTa da kedelTagan TviT ber-monazonTa sulsa da gulzed gadaitane. Sen Caagone da Seagnebine ber-monazonT, rom sulis cxoneba marto locviT ar moipoveba, rom sulis sacxoneblad locvasTan erTad saWiroa garja-muSaoba moyvasTa sasargeblod. amisTvis, Tumca Sen mier Seyvarebulis Sios ber-monazonobis uSromlad cxovreba Senis uxvis SewirulebiT uzrunvel-yofilia, magram Sen mainc Seaswavle da Seayvare maT mefutkreoba, mevenaxeoba da mebostneoba. Sen TiTon gaiCine bostan-venaxi, sadac madliT SemosilT xelTa SenTa dRe-mudam umuSavnia am moxucebulobis drosac ki, Senma magaliTma ise imoqmeda ber-monazonebzed, rom yovelma maTganma gaaCina bostan venaxi, ris gamoc dRes am udabnos amSveneben da acocxleben episkoposis, maqsimes, Sios da ilarionis bostan-venaxi. am sazogado muSaobam dayudebuli beric ki gaitaca da masac  auRia xelSi waldi da Toxi da Sesdgomia tyis gamowmendas da niadagis damzadebas bostan-venaxis gasaSeneblad. Seaswavle da Seayvare-ra ber-monazonT Sroma-muSaoba, Senve moupove maT saukeTeso nergi da Tesleuloba im pirobiT, rom axalis mosavlisagan Tesleuloba gaevrcelebiaT mezoblad mdebare soflebSi. Sen mier dadebulis pirobis ber-monazonTagan Sesruleba, rogorc dasawyisi monastris

     

     

     

    sityva

    Tqmuli qarTuli filarmoniuli sazogadoebis warmomadgenlis z. i.  CxikvaZisagan yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres dasaflavebazed.

     

          yovlad patiosano! obolT nugeSo, RaribT imedo! saqarTvelos sasiqadulo mamulis Svi­lo yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre!

    tfilisis qarTuli filarmoniuli sazogadoeba aq, wm. daviT aRmaSe­neb­lis taZarSi, romelic Tqvenis meoxebiT ganaxlebuli da gamSvenierebulia, dRes ukanas­knelad eTxoveba Tavis sapatio wevrs da umdablesad eamboreba Tqvens kurT­xeul marjvenas.

    am ori wlis winad, rodesac me qarTuli filarimoniuli sazogadoebis gam­geobis mondobilobiT giaxeliT momexsenebina, rom man Tqveni meufeba, amoirCia sapatio wevrad, friad giamaT da mkiTxeT Tu ra mizani aqvs am axal sazogadoebasao.  me mokled gangimar­ted mizani da diadi mniSvneloba filarmouniuli sazogadoebisa, yovlad samRvdeloo; Tqven ymawviluris aRtacebiT, akankalebulis xmiT SeaqeT Cveni sazogadoebis damaarsebelni da is ki dagaviwydaT, rom Cvenzed win, TiTqmis ocis wliT, Tqven miaqcieT yuradReba Cven saeklesio galobas da mcodne pirebis SemweobiT daawerineT notebzed Tqvenisave sasyidliT dili Zali saeklesio sagaloblebi.

    me vgoneb, Tqven ufro didi qebisa da didebis  Rirsi brZandebiT. Cven mxolod mivbaZeT Tqvens keTils magaliTs da saeklesio sagaloblebTan erTad movisurveT saero simRerebis Sekreba da notebzed dawera, vinaidgan Cveni saeklesio da saero musika nayofia erTi xalxisa, orive qarTvelis gulidgan aRmonakveTia. sakvirvelia, rom yoveli keTili saqme saqarTveloSi uyuradRebod ar iyo datovebuli Tqvengan da Tqveni madliani da uxvi xeli gaSlili iyo yvelasaTvis. me ubralo momakvdavs savsebiT ar SemiZlian davasuraTo Tqveni samagaliTo da saarako gulis sispetake. igi dRes Cemzed ukeT  daaxasiaTes da ganmartes aq TqvenTan ukanasknel gamo­saT­xoveblad mosulma pativcemul pirebma. me mxolod amasa gTxovT, yovlad patiosano meufeo, rom iq, saqarTvelos eklesiis wmindanTa da mowameTa Soris, romlis winaSe Tqven Rirseulad wardgebiT da romelTa gunds Tqveni uzakvro da spetaki suli ueWvelad SeuerTdeba; iq imaT Segvavedre da bodiSi mogvxade maT winaSe Tu aqamdin Cven Rirseulad ver gaufrTxildiT da ver davicaviT, samwuxarod, damaxinjebisagan saqarTvelos wm. mamaTa spetak gulidan aRmonakveTi da saukunoebiT ganspetakebuli, gamSvenierebuli da saarako melodiebiT mdidari qarTuli saeklesio galobani. SegvavedreT, Segvindon es TiTqmis miutovebeli qarTveluri daudevroba; Segvavedre, rom maTis locviT RmerTma misces Zala da SeZleba Cven filarmoniul sazogadoebas, rom man savsebiT Seasrulos Tavisi daniSnuleba da aRadginos utyuarad is caT aRmafreni sasuliero hangebi, romlebic umecarTa da uvicTagan Selaxula da damaxinjebula.

    Segvavedre sameba erT-arsebis winaSe rom filarmoniuli sazogadoebam SesZlos aramc Tu aRdgena Cvenis saTnoebiT savse sagaloblebisa, aramed, Tvinier amisa, mogvces is SemoqmedebiTi Zala da niWi, rom saucxovod da samagaliTod  gagvemSvenibinos qarTul kiloTa niadagzed es sagaloblebi.

    saukuno da dauviwyari iyos saxeli da xseneba Tqveni yovlad mowyaleo meufeo, Cven drois saqarTvelos aRmaSenebelo, yovlad-samRvdelo aleqsandre!

                          zaqaria CxikvaZe.

     

    maradis  dauviwyaro mRvdelTmTavaro!

     

    movida Jami, da miiRe qristianobiTi aRsasruli cxovrebisa Senisa uWirveli, mSvidobiTi da urcxvneli...

    SevkrebilvarT sruliad saqarTvelos eklessis Svilni, movsulvarT saqarT­velos yoveli kuTxidan Seni pativismcemelni da veTxovebiT dRes Sens wmida neStsa.

    sxvebTan erTad qarTvelTa wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebac uZRv­nis am Sens wmida neSts Tavisis mxriT ukanasknel Tayvaniscemasa da swiravs Sens sayvarel monasters qarTvelTa mociqulis wmida ninos xatsa. Seiwynare igi da miiTvale keTil Sesawiravad!

    wmidao meufeo, Sen iyav qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamvrcelebeli sazoga­doebis sapatio wevri, radgan, qarTvelTa sarwmunoebisa da Zveli eklesiisaTvis erTgul da samagaliTo moRvaweobasTan erTad, Sen Rirseulad iRvawe Zveleburi naSTebis gamoqveynebisa da aRdgenisaTvis, agreTve Cvens axalgazrda qarTvelebSi swavla-ganaTlebis mofenisaTvis. Senis wyalobiT da Seni sakuTari safasiT dabeWde mravali didaT SesaniSnavi xelTnaweri: uSenod male ara  naxavden stambasa saba sulxan orbelianis Zvirfasi leqsikoni, ara nakleb Zvirfasi swor-metyveleba”  saxel ganTqmulis anton qaTalikozisa, misive mza-metyveleba, mravali SesaniSnavi gujari da sxva sabuTebi; Senive TaosnobiT da warsagebeliT daibeWda ioane oqropiris wirvis qarTuli sagalobeli, amasac saeklesio did mniSvnelobasTan erTad didi saistorio da saeTnografio mniSvneloba aqvs. Senis wyalobiT ara erTma da ara orma axalgazrdam miiRo saSualo ganaTleba da zogma TviT umaRlesi ganaTlebaca.

    mravali sabuTi mowmobs Sens qristianebriv keTil moRvaweobasa. yazanis sasuliero akademiis sabuTebi mogviTxroben Seni studentobis droidan Sens qristianebriv patiosans zrunvasa saSineli gadamdebi seniT Sepyrobili umweo xalxisaTvis, da siyvaruliT movlasa. afxazeTis daoblebuli samRv­del­mTavro kaTedra da Zvelis-Zveli taZrebi mogviTxroben Sens samisio­nero Rvawlsa qristianobis aRdgenisaTvis da taZarTa ganaxlebisaTvis. ixila Seni keTili mRvdelmTavroba WyondidelTa dabeCavebulma kaTedramaca da SemoqmedelTa kaTedramaca... magram yvelaze meti Rvawli migiZRvis Sen im Zvelis-Zvel da saxelganTqmul savanes winaSe, sadac daasrule Seni samagaliTo bermonaznuli cxovreba da sadac dRes daikrZaleba Seni wmida neSti Sens sayvarel Rirs mama SiosTan da sxva mraval aq gansvenebul wmida mamebTan erTad. es savane, es odesme qarTvelebis saxelganTqmul lavrad yofili savane, didebuli da mravalmetyveli wignia misTvis, vinc icis amisTana wignebis kiTxva da dafaseba. aq odesme qarTuli mwignobroba da saganaTlebo moRvaweoba sduRda da sCqefda, aq qarTvelTa gamamxnevebeli sityva da saqme brwyinavda... Sen aRadgine mkvdreTiT es monasteri da aRmoiyvane sikvdilisgan cxovrebad, mianiWe sicocxle axlaT: gamococxlden Zveli taZrebi, senakebi, gamococxlda udabno mooxrebuli da moifina venaxiTa, – unayofs kldem gamosca nayofi keTili, da mohyurZnian keTil-morwmuneni da RvTis mosavni. esreT gamoCndi Sen mecxramete saukuneSi da meoce saukunis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos meore „Sio axlad“. Senive wyalobiT gamococxlda agreTve savane didebulis ioane zedanelisa da masTan kidev mcxeTis SesaniSnavi jvaris monasteri. ar yofiliyaT Sen, es sami monasteri qarTvelebis xelidan dRes wasuli iqneboden – sxva daepatroneboda maT da Tavisebur sulsac Caudgamda... vinca aRmoikiTxos am Zvel naSTTa kedlebi, es mravalmetyveli da Rrmametyveli furclebi, man gulis xma-hyos!... Zmano! Cven vasaflavebT dRes qarTvelTa Zveli morwmuneobis da RvTis-mosavobis naSTTa. ganaxldeba kidev Cveni Zveleburi morwmuneoba Tu ara? me ar vici, is ki vici, rom sicrue Zalian moedo Cvens qveyanas... sarwmunoebis saqmeSi: cruoben morwmuned wodebulnica da urwnunod wodebulnica; sicruiT icmen mravalni anaforasac da sabermonazono bartyulasac, sicruiT midian sakurTxevlis trapezTan da mRvdelmoqmedoben, sicruiT qadageben, galoben,  RaRadeben... diax, mravalni RaRadeben da metyveleben sicruiT da uqmad, magram aw RvTiT  Sesvenebuli yoflad samRvdelo aleqsandre Sors iyo sicruezed: marTliad swamda da ZalRonis kvalobazed erTguli iyo Tavisi sarwmunoebisa da saesavisa; gulaxdiT metyvelebda, gulaxdiT moqmedebda, wmindis guliT loculobda da marxulobda.

    bermonazonuli cxovreba, locva da marxuloba ar uSlida, rom wmin­dis guliT hyvareboda mravaltanjuli samSoblo mxare – saqmiTac da sityvi­Tac, igi yovelTvis guliTadi TanamgrZnobeli iyo da xelis Semwyobi Cveni qveynis, Cveni eris warmatebisa da winsvlisa. yvelas gvaxsovs aleqsandre episkoposiseburi sityva, gvaxsovs miseburi qeba qebis Rirsisa da miseburi gakicxva gakicxvis Rirsisa!

    gana unda daviviwyoT yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandres cxare da mware sityvebi maT mimarT, visac Zala Seswevda da ki ar zrunavda samSoblo qveynisaTvis, anu dau­fa­ravad da sajarod gankicxva aleqsandre episkopozis mier im kacTa, vinc sakuTari, mdabali da ara-sakadrisi angarebisaTvis orgulobden da Ralatobden deda-qve­yanas, Taviss gvartomobas? samagieroT, rogori gulsavsebiT ekideboda imaT, vinc iyo Cveni deda-qveynis Cinebuli moRvawe da Rirseuli Svili! rogori siyvaruliT da erTgulebiT uZRveboda Cvens didebul da pativsacem micvalebulebs! gavixsenoT dasaflaveba dimitri yifianisa, nikolooz baraTaSvilis neStis gadmosveneba, vaxtang orbelianis dasaflaveba da sxva... bolos, sul ukanasknelad, mxcova­ne­bisagan mouZlurebuli, igi mainc daeswro Cveni axal-droebis mowamis didis ilias dasaflavebas, Seasrula sarwmunoebrivi wesi, gamoesalma Taviseburi guliTadi sityviT da siyvaruliT emTxvia ilias gvamsa! es iyo ukanaskneli naxva mis mier Cveni deda-qalaqisa da ukanaskneli naxva misi Cveni deda-qalaqis mier...

    dasaflavebis meore dRes Sevida dila-adrianad Cvens wmida sionSi, iloca lmobierad, gamoeTxova Taviss sayvarel sionisa RvTis-mSobels, wmida ninos xatsa da jvarsa, gamoeTxova sionis dekanozsa, da gamoeSura Taviss sayvarel Siosadmi, Tavis ukanasknel saiqao navTsayudelisaken... gaiara orma Tvem, da – kidec aResrula aq sasoebiT, uWirvelad, urcxvenelad ganuteva wmida suli Tvisi mSvidobiT, misi sayvareli Rirsi mama Sios wminda Zvlebis gverdiT...

    ganvlo yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandrem cxovrebisa zRva mRelvare, ganicada am soflis siborote mravali, orguloba, Ralati, cilis-wameba, dasmena, Zmis gacema, da – Rrma moxucebulobis ukanasknel dReebSi Sios navTsayudels Seafara mouZlu­re­buli Tavi. exla ki es saaqao navTsayudelic dauteva da Sevida saukuno samSvidobo navTsayudelsa...

    ganisvene, Cveno mxcovano wmidao mRvdelmTavaro, WeSmarito Zveleburo ber-monazono, mSvidobiT! Rirso mamao Sio, aha, Semovals SenTan igi, vinca ganaaxla Seni didebuli mRvime, – Sen siyvaruliT Seiwynareb mas da ganusveneb SenTan saukunod!..

                                       ivane ratiSvili

     

                              † yovlad samRvdelo episkopozi aleqsandre

     

    15 ama noembers y-samRvdelo episkoposma aleqsandrem miiZina misgan ganax­lebuli Sio mRvimelis udabnoSi.

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre daibada 1824 wels – mas monaTvlis dros saxelad aleqsi daarqves, imisi mama daviT oqropiriZe mRvdlaT msaxurobda go­ris mazris erTs sofelSi. tfilisis seminariaSi kursis damTavrebis Sem­deg aleqsi oqropiriZe aRikveca berad, da saxelad aleqsandre uwodes. mTa­var-diakonis xarisxiT is gaemgzavra yazanis sasuliero akademiaSi swavlis dasamTavreblad. sasuliero kursis damTavrebis Semdeg mTavar diakoni aleq­san­dre mRvdel-monaznad akurTxes. saqarTveloSi dabrunebis Semdeg axalgazrda mRvdelmonazoni afxazeTSi gagzavnes da Semdeg quTaisis sasuliero sawavleblis zedamxedvelad iqmna daniSnuli. 1855 wels akurTxes iRumenad, male arqimandritadac da isev afxazeTSi iqmna gagzavnili. 1862 wels xel­dasxmul iqna mRvdelT-mTavrad Tbilisis sionis taZarSi eqsarxosis evsevis mier sxva mRvdel-mTavrebis TanamwirvelobiT, mas Cabarda afxazeTis kaTed­ra. 1869 wels gadmoyvanil iqmna  goris episkoposad da saqarTvelos eqsarxosis pirvels qor-episkoposad, 1882 wlidam 1886 wlamdis marTavda guriis eparqias da Semdeg isev dabrunda tfiliss Tvissave Tanamdebobazed)*.

    yovlad-samRvdelo aleqsandre xSirad saqarTvelos eqsarxosis magiv­robasac swevda. rodesac eqsarxosebi droebiT ruseTs wavidodden, „pragons“ miiRebden, qarTl-kaxeTis eparqias yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre ganagebda; igive Tavj­domareobda qarTl-kaxeT-imereTis sinodalurs kantoraSi. mas aqvs miRebuli mravali ordeni. 15 maiss 1893 wels umaRlesad eboZa mas xelmwife imperatorisagan ZvirTasis Tval-margalitebiT Semkuli „gulzed dasakidi“ – panagia – erTad umaRless „wyalobis werilTan“ („reskripti“). yovlad-samRvdelo aleqsandres mravali gzis madloba aqvs miRebuli xelm­wife imperatorisa, misis umaRlesobis didis mTavris mixeil nikolo­zis Zi­sa, locva-kurTxeva da madloba uwmindesis sinodisa da sxva. yovlad-samRv­delo aleqsandre wevri iyo mraval saqvel-moqmedo sazogadoebaTa da da­wese­bulebaTa, romelnic ki ruseTis saxelmwifoSi arseboben. rus-osmaleTis yi­rimis omis dros sevastopolis gmirTa da maT daoblebul saxlobaTa sasar­geblod yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre swiravda yovel wlobiT 200 maneTs. manve ganaaxla q. soxumis axlos, Zveli ekklesia mosaxse­neblad impe­ra­tor aleqsandre meoris sas­wau­lebrivis gadarCenisa 4 aprils 1866 welsa. 25 maiss 1867 wels tfilisis sasuliero seminarias Seswira 2,000 maneTi misis impe­rato­rebiTis umaRlesobis didi mTavris mixeil nikolozis Zis saxel­zed. am TanxiT izrdeba seminariaSi erTi stipendianti, romelsac TviT yovlad-samRvdelo irCevs. yazanis sasuliero akademiis Raribi studentebis sasargeblod 300 maneTi Seswira; tfilisis saeparqio dedaTa saswavlebels ki – 3,000 maneTi masSi stipendiebis dasaarseblad. mcxeTis didebuls Tor­metis mociqulis sakrebulo taZars Seswira gansaaxleblad 1,500 maneTi da amave taZris ganmaaxlebeli komitetis Tavmjdomarec brZandeboda. yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandrem ganaaxla jvaris eklesia mcxeTis aRmosav­liT. ganaax­la Tvis samSoblo sofelSi Zveli ekklesia, lekebisagan dangreuli. man 2,000 maneTi qarTuli saeklesio galobis notebzed gadasaRebad gadasdo. wirva loc­vis galoba kidec gadaRebul iqmna notebzed b. ipolitov-ivanovis mier da mowonebul iqmna sasuliero mTavrobisagan. manve gamosca Tavis safasiT saukeTeso naSTebi Zvelis qarTulis mwerlobisa: „mza metyveleba“ anton qaTalikosisa, saba-sulxan orbelianis „leqsikoni“, „xma codvilisa RvTi­sad­mi“, b. avalianisa, anton kaTalikozis „swor-metyveleba“, ambrosi nekreslis „si­t­y­va­ni da moZRvrebani“ da sxv. yovlad samRvdelom didi samsaxuri gauwia qarTulis dabadebis Sesworebas da dabeWdvis saqmes. yovlad-samRvdelo aleqsandrem ganaaxla didebuli monastrebi, wm. Siosi da ioanne zedazne­lisa, – pirvels 21,000 da meores – 11,700 maneTi Seswira. es Tanxa xel-uxleblad dadebulia saxelmwifo bankSi da sargebeli eZleva monasterTa StatSi myof ZmaTa sarCod.

                                 gaz. „mwyemsi“.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    sityva

    y-d samRvdelo ep. aleqsandres dasaflavebasa zeda

    wm. Sio mRvimis monasterSi, 1907 w. 14 noembers.

     

    y-d samRvdelo meufev! dRes imodena sityvebSi wodebis ganurCevlad aRniSnes Tqveni Ruawli winaSe erisa,  samSoblo eklesiisa, samSoblosi da eri­sa. ise savse­biT kidev ver daaxasiaTes Tqveni Ruawli, rogorc moiTxovda Tqve­ni piradoba da guluxvoba. Tqvenis beruli cxovrebiT da miReba-gamo­ci­lebiT yvelas gancvifrebaSi SeiyvandiT xolme, gansakuTrebiT ruseTiT mosulebs da bevrs mosagonadac darCebiT. masTan gulaxdiT da bevrjel pirdapiri Tqma agvirgvinebda Tqvens cxov­rebas da gimravlebda pativs mcemelTa, Tumca vieTa ar moswondaT! ai Tqveni anda­za, – „ori Sauris muSasa, mis dReSi ara uSavsra“ – unda darCes qarTvelTa Soris, amitom jer erTi Tquens mosagonad da meore, cxovrebiTac daumtkice saqarTvelos da kacobriobasa. ra iyo es wm. Sios monasteri 1888 w. da ras warmoadgenda? satirel da savalalos da qarTvelis ieremia ver moitirebda imis mdgomareobas! aba, exla Sehxedos kacma da Seudaros maSindels mingreuls mongreuls monastersa da sworeT rom misabaZia is Seupovari brZola cxovrebasTan da miznis misaRwev garemoebaTa Tana, raica ganicade aqamomde. yvela aq mravalTa mier moxsenebul Ruawlisa wil ra mogageT Sen yovlad samRvdelo meufeo, aleqsandre episkopozo? ver gigdeT yuri, ver giCveneT siyvaruli da mxari ver dagiWireT gansamxneveblad. yvela  CamogSordiT, yvelam giRalateT da Sen SegrCa siymis SviliviT Seni maqsime, romelic ai aq aris damarxuli, veragulad mokluli da moyvsisaTvis Tavdadebuli. es rom mogikles gulic gagipes, gagitexes da uimedobaSi Cagagdo Cvenma beCaobaman da ai am ubiro xalxis Seugneblobam. yovlad samRvdelo! nu dagvwyev uyurad­Re­bobisTvis,  nu daswyevli am beCav xalxsa, romelic uvicobas Seupyria da ukuneTis morevSi iSToba. nu daswyevli rom Seni erTguli maqsime mogikvles da miT Senc sicocxle mogiswrafes. ai, ager isini aq dagtirian, da tiriliT da cremliT umzeren Sen dakargvas. iloce winaSe RvTis im erisa wmindaT Tana Seavedre Seni sayvaruli saqarTvelo, rom RmerTman dagvixsnas Cven Sinauris mtrebisagan, romelic aris gamanadgurebeli da gamaTaxsirebeli erisa da aRmyreli piradis Rirsebis qristianesi da moyvasisa. TviT Sen ara gaxdi msxverpli am Sinauris mterobisa, rom moeqeci, Caikete am monasterSi da yuri veRar gigdeT? gvapatie, dagvloce, gvakurTxe da iloce CuenTvis, rom Seni sayuareli samSoblos Svilni da moRuaweni ar moecvas didebasa, urTierTa qiSpobasa, qvebudanobasa da gamyidvel didebis Zebnasa; SeegnoT is didi da didi WeSmariteba, rom borotebaa sazogado saqmis Sewirva piradi TavmoyuarebisaTvis! amanve ar dasca Cveni samSoblo da eklesia? amisa gamo ar aris Seferxebuli yoveli keTili miswrafeba? culs tarad Cvenive uyrian da imitom iRupeba yoveli keTili saqme da miswrafeba! movtiroT mamano da Zmano, dedano da dano, yovlad samRvdelo Rirseuli mama episkoposi aleqsandre da nu daviviwyebT miss miswrafebaTa da siyvaruls eklesiisa da mamulisadmi, vemsaxuroT misebr Tu gviyvars igi. marTalia, igi miicvala, gardaicvala, garna exla gandidna, exla idida da momavali misi didebulia winaSe RvTisa! sikudili igive cxovrebaa da Rirseuli kaci netarebiT ixseneba. vnaxoT vinRa gvialeqsandreebs da mosalmebiT vin gagviRebs karebs  RmerTo saukuneTao, Semoqmedo caTa qveyanisao! Seivedre suli y-d samRv­delo aleqsandre episkopozisa da meoxebiTa wm. Siosi da yovelTa wmindaTa ive­riisa eklesiisaTa da wesi igi, sadaca mixedavs naTeli pirisa Senisa amin.

                                   mR. vasil karbelaSvili

     

     

    mRvdel-mTavrobisa kvarTiTa Semkobilman,

    „RvTiv-mSvenierad hqadage, Sen, saxareba...“

    15 noemberi, 1907 w. SiomRvimeSi.

     

    saqarTvelos eklesiis ukvdavo mRvdelT-mTavaro, qarTveli eris Tavdadebulo Wirisufalo! sayvarelo mwyemT-mTavaro! Senma amier micvalebam dRes Segvkriba Senni aRzrdilni Svilni, raTa Cveni wrfeli cremli vapkuroT Sens wminda gvamsa da ukanasknel veamboroT Sens madlians makurTxebels marjvenasa! Cven yovelTvis moqe­ne viyaviT Senis mamaSvilobisa, Senis moZRvrobisa da, aha, dResac Seni momcinare, mxiaruli saxe gvmoZRvris. Sen Rrmad-moxucebulman SeinarCune, sikvdilamde cxoveli siyvaruli Senis mSobeli erisa, misis sikeTisaTvis bevri fiqri saqmed gardahqmen da Senda uflisa mier mindobilisa talantisa erTi aTad aRmaRorZi­nebeli mxiarulis saxiTa warsdgebi winaSe piruTvnelisa msajulisa! Cven yvelam kargaT viciT Seni ganvlili cxovreba, igi metad nar-ekliani da xifaTiani iyo, magram Sen aRfrTovanebuli iyav ukeTesi mermisis sasoebiT da qedi ar moudrike Senis mSobeli eris Sammusrvel Zalasa. Seni cxovrebis ekliani gza upovarebiT aRsavse cxovrebiT ganvle, saTnoebiTa da ubiweobiT xvidodi da naTel mosili saxiT daiZine Zili ege marTalTa!

    Sen saqmiT aRasrulebdi RvTis mcnebaTa da Wirsa Sina myofTa gvamxnevebdi „daT­menad ferad-feradTa sulisa qenjnaTa da tanjvaTa“.

    mTeli Seni sicocxle iyo „nebsiT uaryofa xorcisa“, raTa suli Seni „ze aRgevlina. amitom Sen upovrobaSi ganvle Seni cxovreba, yovel dRe hzogavdi Sens qonebriv SeZlebasa, Sens naSromT-naRvawsa. me TviT ara erTxel vyofilvar mowme Senis moTminebisa da Rvawlisa. Sen SegeZlo fufunebiT gecxovra, sxvebiviT sau­ke­Teso sazrdo-sanovagiT genebivrebina Seni Tavi, magram yovel cismare dRe pursa da wyalzed aRamebdi da moTminebisasa, rom Seni mSobeli eris saqmisaTvis mogexma­rebina ase dazogvili mwvlili. am gziv mravali oboli da siRaribeSi myofi yrma ga­gvi­zarda Senma uxvma marjvenam.

    Sen Caudgi mkvidri saZirkveli qarTuli Zveli galobis aRdginebis saqmesa, Sen dastambe mravali qarTuli Zveli xelnaweri da, viTarca fasdaudebelni saunjeni, ar daukarge Sen mSobel ersa; Sen ganaaxle Zvel taZarT  nangrevni da mxecTa da nadirT bunagad qceulni – ber-monazonTa sacxovreblad  hyav.

    aha, taZari da savane Rirsis Siosi, romelni mkafiod RaRadeben Sens qvelobasa, Sens adamianobasa! Senis mRviZarebiT da Tav-gamodebulis SromiT Sen viTarca finik ama klde-RreTa Soris aRayvavile wm. Sios savane ese da Zveli dideba kvlav aRudgine. esreTis qvelis saqmiT Sen adide RmerTi da miemsgavse Zvel qarTvel mRvdelTmTavrebsa, romelnic „Wirsa Sina qviTkirobdnen“ da ukeTesis mermisis sasoebas aRutyinebdnen Tavis samwysosa.

    Sen Rirseulad ganvlilis cxovrebiT uxvad miuwye RvTisa-RmerTsa da erisa-ersa.

    Seni ber-monazonebrivi cxovreba esreT ganuwyveteli saTnoeba iyo da igi win daudgine Cven dacemuls ber-monaznobasa.

    SengniT aRzrdil da mwysilni Svilni cremliT gevedrebiT nu mogvaklebs Senis sulis simtkicesa, Sens mxneobasa. aha, sayvarelo mRvdelT-mTavaro, Sen mier xeldasxmuli mRvdeli sasoebiT movidrek muxlTa CemTa winaSe Senis cxedrisa da Tval-cremliani vemTxvevi Sens wminda makurTxevels.

    ganisvene netarebiT, sayvarelo mwyemsTavaro! ah, – Seni Svilebr aRzrdili leo­ni­dic Tavs dagtiris CvenTan erTad; ager Seni erTguli maqsimec xeleb-ganpyrobiT mogegebeba da geamboreba.

     movediT Zmano da megobarno, ukanaskneli ambori mivsceT Cvens dauviwyars mRvdelT-mTavars aleqsandres!...

                             mR. p. karbelaSvili

     

     

    sityva

    Tqmuli dekanozi d. xaxutaSvilis mier netar xsenebulis

    episkopozis aleqsandres cxedris winaSe dasaflavebis dRes Sio mRvimis monasterSi

     

    saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa.

    movel mec, raTa Tayvani vsce Tqvens wmida cxedarsa, Cveno sasoeba meufeo. movedi Soris mesxeTidgan, romlisTvisac isre guli Segtkivoda, romlis avs, Tqvens avad iTvlidiT da kargs kargada; romelzedac yoveli xilvis dros guls mxurvaleT gamomkiTxavdiT mis bedsa da ubedobasa da, Tu ipovnidi rame kargs mxaresa mis cxovrebaSi, aRivsebodiT siamovneba kmayofilebiTa, xolo ubedoba misi, sibnele misTa mcxovrebTa mogfenda kaeSansa. garna ara marto mesxeTi iyo sagani Tqveni mamobrivi mzrunvelobisa, amnairisave siyvaruliT ealersebodiT yvela kuTxes Cveni dabeCavebuls qveynisas da yvelasaTvis erTnairad cdilobdiT Sveba-lxenas miscemoda, keTil-qristianul gzazed earna da daeTrguna sibnele, es gamanadgurebeli CrCili adamianTa sicocxlisa, keTil-dReobisa, winmsvlelobisa. am nairive qristianuli siyvaruliT egebebodiT yoveli qveynis, xalxis kargsa, iwyendiT avsa.

    zemo naTqvamTa naTel sayoflad sakmarisia mxolod davasaxeloT ramdenime faqti Tqvenis cxovrebisa, Tqvenis moqmedebisa, Tqveni safasiT aRizardnen sxvadasxva saswavleblebSi mravalni Svilni Cvenis qveynisa, gangviaxleT ara erTi dideba Cveni warsulis cxovrebisa – monasteri – da amiTi Tvali agvixileT, raTa SegeyvarebinaT CvenTvis Cveni Tavi, raTa mogecaT magaliTi, gagemxnevebineT Cven dalaCrebulni, damconarebulni, uTav­darikod qceulni. Tqveni safasiT gamoeciT ara erTi saunje Cveni warsuli gonierebisa, raTa amiTi gagemdidrebinaT, win wagewiaT, gagemxnevebinaT Cveni dakninebuli cxovreba gonebis mxriT, dakninebuli mwerloba, dakninebuli ena. Sen  yvelasfers iklebdi, atarebdi berul cxovrebas, raTa zed miwevniT aRgesrulebinaT qristes mcnebani, xolo Tu rame mogepovebodaT sTesavdiT amiT madlsa da sikeTesa.

    cxovreba Tqveni, rogorc sasuliero pirisa, iyo aRsavse sasoebiTa RvTisadmi, aRsavse umaRlesi zneobriobiT, zomierebiTa, Tav-mdablobiTa. qveyniurs cxovrebas Tqven arasfrad ar agdebdiT, viTarca mosavi qristesi da amitom iyaviT piradi, simarTlisaTvis Tav-dadebuli, avis mZraxveli, visSiac unda SegeniSnaT igi, Tumca ara erTxel SegmTxvevia amisaTvis usiamovneba.

    bolos daRlilma, daqanculma ama cxovrebis amaoebasTan brZoliT dauteve xorcieli ese cxovreba, viTarca tvirTi mZime, raTa warsdge winaSe zecieris msajulisa. gangvSordi, Cveno sasoeba mRvdel-mTavaro, mogvakle Tqveni keTil zneobrivi magaliTebi, gulwrfeli rCeva-darigeba da amiTi Cagvagde usaso simZimelSi, dardSi, sagonebelSi, vin viSovoT Tqvenebr exlandels droSi magaliTi qristes mosavebisa?! Znelia metad exlandels usaso cxovrebaSi viSovnoT imdenad Semkuli sasoebiTa, rogorc Tqven da ai amitom viSiSviT didis mwuxareba-vaebiTa. xolo Tu es simZimeli civi gulidgan ar amodis, Tu marTla madlierni Svilni varT Tqveni, amas davamtkicebT imiTi, rom Tqvens wminda cxovrebas davisaxavT magaliTad, Tqven mier naval gzazed vivliT, Tqven didTa saqmeTa wavbaZavT. ese yvela iqneba Tqvens magieri nugeSi CvenTvis, xolo Tqveni spetaki sulisaTvis saoxi ima cxovrebaSi, vinaidgan amiTi naTeli yofil iqneba, rame Tqvenda miniWebuli RvTisa mier talanti keTilad giwaRmarTebiT. amin.

                                                    dekanozi dimitri xaxutaSvili

     

     

    sityva

    Tqmuli Sio-mRvimis monasterSi aleqsandre

    episkopozis dasaflavebis dRes

     

    yovels ers yavs Tavis winamZRolni, mowinave pirni, gamoCenilni moRvaweni, romlebic Seadgenen eris Zalas, eris simdidres, eris didebas. Cvenc, qarTvelebsa, dRemdisac gvyolian da exlac gvyvanan didebulni muSakni, zegardmomadliT cxebulni moTaveni, romlebic mudam iRvwodnen da dResac daucxromlad iRvwian Cvenis eris winmsvlelobisaTvis, Cvenis eris keTil-dReobisaTvis, Cvenis eris bednierebisaTvis.

    ai am rCeulTa  moRvaweTa Soris, ueWvelad, erTi upirvelesi adgil­Tagani eWira aw ukve gansvenebuls, saqarTvelos ekklesiis mnaTobs, sasiqa­dulo episkoposs aleqsandres... samSoblos Rrmad moyvaruli, erTguli Svili saqarTvelos ekklesiisa, Saravandosani mRvdelTmTavari aleqsandre dabadebidan sikvdilamdis erTgulad emsaxureboda mamuls da ekklesias, mTeli cxovreba gansvenebulisa mowamea imis, rom mas qonda: sarwmunoeba urcxveneli, sasoeba mtkice, siyvaruli Seuorgulebeli – mTeli cxovreba gansvenebulisa mowamea imisa, rom saqarTvelos am didebulma Svilma didebulad Seasrula Tavisi daniSnuleba, Cinebulad moixada am qveynis vali da ganwmendili, ganspetakebuli dRes mxiarulad warmdgaria winaSe RvTisa, rom miiRos misgan uxrwneli gvirgvini didebisa.

    netareba im dedas, im qarTvel mandilosans, im RvTisnier adamians, romelmac pawia aleqsi oqropiriZes awova Tvisni ZuZuni da tkbil rZesTan erTad Caunerga mas gulSi uuRrmesi siyvaruli RvTisa da moyvasisadmi.

    gixaroden, meufeo, da Seswire madloba Sens mfarvels angelozs, rom siyrmidgan aqamomde dagifara Sen man eSmakis safrTxeTagan da mSvidobiT gamogasalma Sens madliers samSoblos:

    icoden, meufeo, rom gmadlobs Sen saqarTvelos istoria, romlis ganmtkicebas Sen xels uwyobdi da romlis naSTTa Sen iyavi mcveli da mfarveli; gmadloben Sen wmindani kapadokieli mamamTavarni: Sio mRvimeli da ioane zedazneli, romelTa savvaneni Sen aRadgine da ganamSvene Senis wvliliTa.

    gmalobs Sen, meufeo, ena mSobliuri, ena qarTuli, romlis aRorZinebas da gaZlierebas Sen etrfodi wrfelis guliTa.

    gmadlobs Sen, mefeo, eri qarTveli, romelsac Sen aRuzarde da memkvidreT dautove Senebr morwmune da samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebuli mRvdelT mTavari, ai es Seni leonidi, romelic ase guldawyvetilad dRes eTxoveba Sens wmida naSTsa.

    madlieri Senis Rvawlisa da dRes guldamwvari Senis dakargviTa sruliad saqarTveloisa da kerZod guria-samegrelos ekklesia geTxoveba Sen, meufeo, da yovlad wmida RvTis mSobels mariam, romlis wilxvdomili qveyanaa Cveni saqarTvelo, raTa man yovlad mowyaleman mouvlinos saqarTvelos ekklesias keTil dReoba da qarTvels ers momadlos: sarwmunoeba urcxvneli, sasoeba mtkice da siyvaruli Seuorgulebeli...

    mSvidobiT, mwyemso keTilo!.. gvakurTxen, wmidao mRvdelmTavaro!... amin.

    foTis sakaTedro taZris mRvdeli ioanne boboxiZe

     

     

    sityva

    yovlad samRvdelo aleqsandre episkopozis

    gardacvalebis gamo miss y-d usamRvdeloebas

    episkopoz leonids

     

    y-d usamRvdeloeso meufeo! marTa da mariamTan maTi Zmis lazares micvale­bazed, TviT macxovari RmerTkaci ieso qriste Seswuxda da crem­lob­da. Tqven, meu­feo, rogorc kaci da namdvili qarTveli gulkeTili, ganaTlebiT mgrZnobi yovelive qveyniuri da zeciuri moqalaqeobisa, ra gasakvirvelia vinmesagan, rom didi mwuxare iqmnebiT Tqveni RviZliTi sayvareli da sasiqadulo biZis y-d samRvdelo aleq­sandres saukunod miZinebisaTvis; gibedavT da mogaxsenebT, rom mTelad saqarT­veloSi sasi­qadulo arseba iyo, kaci igi umanko, naTliT mosili, ara angari, ara momxveWi, ara piradaT vinmebTan saTno, ara Semkrebi simdidrisa; aramed kanonieri Se­mosavali, raica Semodioda, imasac yovelives axmarda qvels saqmeebs da yovel gaWi­rvebulT cxovrebaSi aZlevda Semweobas da nugeSs.

    vkadnierob moxsenebaT, kaci igi da didaT pativcemuli netarxsene­bu­li y-d usamRvdelesi da Tqveni meufebis sayvareli biZa aleqsandre, yoveli qveynis sasiqadulo da didi moZRvari iyo, masTan Tqveni aRmzrdeli, RvTis sasiamovnoT Tqveni gzis manZilis daniSnulebis maCvenebeli da sxva. nu ukve didi samwuxaro ar iqmneba Tqveni meufebisaTvis am gvari biZis da mamis saukunoT moSoreba da dakrZalva? WeSmaritaT yovel mofiqrebis da gaxsenebis dros didi mwuxareba aRiZras Tqvens wminda sul-gulSi. y-d usamRvdeloeso meufeo! me Tqveni meufebis uuqveSevrdomi mosamsaxure mona, Rirsad vsTvli Cems Tavs, rom Cveni sayvareli mwyems mTavris mwuxarebas, mec morCilma monam Tana ugrZno da Cemi gulis siRrmisagan aRmonaxeTqi mwuxareba SeuerTo Tqveni meufebis mwuxarebas; ara pirmoTneobiT, aramed WeSmariti mgrZnobi-mwuxarebiT.

    me Tumca misi meufebis wm. sulis naSTis cxedris, piradaT Tayvanis cemis Rirsi ver gavxdi, rom erTad Tqvens winaSe mec monawileoba mimeRo da SemeerTebia Cemi cremliT mwuxareba sxvaTaTani; magram es ver movaxerxe sxva da sxva mizezebis gamo da nametur dacemulma cxovrebam da usaxsrobam, am orive mxaris mizezebis momfiqrebelma isev mivmarTe Cemdamo rwmunebul alaverdis w-is g-is ekklesias da erTad Cemi mrevlis orisave sqesisa Tan daswrebiT mxurvale locviT da panaSvidebiT 10,15,17 da 18 ama noembers netar xsenebuli yovlad samRvdelo aleqsan­d­res saxelzed da mrevlTa mokle sityviT gavacani misi meufebis yoveli moRvaweoba da mravalni qvelis saqmeni, erTad Tqveni meufebis sisxliTi naTesaobisa da sxva saukunoT iqneba xseneba misi, rameTu wmida adgili gansvenebisa mielis mas, amin.

    ai misi meufebis, Cemdami erTi keTili qvelis saqme: 1864 w. marto me qveiTad mivdiodi zugdidiT svaneTSi fiqriT daRonebuli, xobis monasters iqiT s. TeklaTSi foTis gza tkecilzed Semomxvda misi meufeba aleqsandre soxumidan momavali, tarantasi carieli nel-nela win miyavdaT da misi meufeba ubralo tanisamosiT da SliapiT qveiTad nela mobrZandeboda (muxlebis mosamarTavad) me gafiqrebulma ver Sevicani da Soris napiridgan ubralod Tavi davukari, man cnobis niSnaT orive xeliT jvari gadmomsaxa, maSin vicani misi meufeba da Cemi SecToma, viaxel da bodiSis moTxoviT Tayvani veci; SeCerda, vinaoba da garemoeba mkiTxa, mec yovelive Cemi gasaWiri movaxsene, Tvalzed cremli SemniSna, nugeSi darigebiT mibrZana, Cemi saxeli da gvari kniRaSi dainiSna da mibrZana „me gabrielTan gamovivlio“... (1) bolos gamosaTxovari Sendobis jvari gadamsaxa, me orive xelebi gauwode rodesac xelebzed marjvene damsdo, Cems xelSi SevniSne dakuSnili qaRaldi Camido, me SevCerdi, magram mibrZana: „mokide xelio, cxeni iSovne qirad da sagZlaT ikmareo“ Tayvani veci da gaudeqi gzas, vnaxe, rom 25 maneTi iyo boZebuli erTi Tumniani da sami xuT xuTmaneTianebi, me ki svaneTSi mimavals marto 3 m. 60 kap. medo jibaSi, calke qveiToba da ufuloba miRonebda guls da calke col-Svilis da ojaxis mitoeba. da Tval cremliani dawuxebuli mivRoRavdi... ver warmoidgens kaci am dros am gvarma qvelis saqmem, ranairad daSrita yvela Cemi mwuxareba da sxva...

                                                    mRvdeli aleqsandre ardiSvili

    (1)  vfiqrob da saqmiTac aRmisrula, rom misi meufebis quTaiss gabrielTan gavlis Sepirebam Cemzed kargaT imoqmeda 1864w.-1884 wladdmde da Semdeg ki daixura Cemi mtrebis meoxebiT da sxva.